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      中日甲午戰爭敗因之謎

      發布時間:2017-12-15  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

        黃海海域“丹東一號”沉船打撈,引發了國內中國媒體的關注,原因是證明沉船身份的一個重要物證出水了,印有“致遠”字樣的瓷器打撈了出來,致遠這個詞相信學過歷史的人一定不會陌生。

        120年前中日爆發甲午海戰,致遠艦正是在這里,在鄧世昌的指揮下英勇作戰,然而可惜當時號稱亞洲第一的北洋水師不緊最后輸了,而且輸的很慘,包括致遠艦在內的5艘戰艦沉沒,隨后不久北洋水師覆滅,清政府然后簽署了喪權辱國的《馬關條約》,可以說當年那場甲午海戰決定了中國半個世紀的命運,影響深遠,可是當年亞洲第一的北洋水師為什么會輸給日本,這里面究竟出了什么問題,120年來無數人在尋找答案,然而就在探尋當中有人發現這其中還真是迷霧重重。懸案迭起那么當年甲午海戰到底都有那些謎案呢?

        一天上午北洋艦隊護送4000名官兵前往朝鮮,在中午返航的時候跟日本聯合艦隊碰上了,提督丁汝昌立馬召集了各艦管帶召開會議,做了雁翎陣部署,可發揮北洋水師前主炮的優勢,以定遠、鎮遠兩艦為先鋒沖擊敵陣,什么是雁翎陣呢?當時的北洋水師以定遠、鎮遠兩艘戰艦居中為首,其它八艘戰艦分在兩側稍后,橫陣排開,日本海軍的12艘戰艦則是成一字型縱隊,中間是他們的松島號旗艦,吉野號在最左邊,他的角色是游擊隊旗艦,海戰開始日軍吉野號帶領其它三艘戰艦從左路迂回開戰僅30分鐘,就擊沉的北洋艦隊右側的超勇艦隨后楊威艦也中炮起火很快沉沒,而后吉野等4艘穿插到后面,北洋水師頓時陣型大亂。

        有人說甲午海戰北洋艦隊輸就輸在提督丁汝昌不懂海軍,雁翎陣有問題,這種說法流傳很廣,那么事實真的是這樣嗎?丁汝昌真的不懂海軍嗎?

        丁汝昌,安徽廬江人 ,早年投身淮軍名將劉銘傳部下,鎮壓過太平天國,后北上征繳捻軍當過騎兵司令,此人打仗勇猛立過不少戰功,被提拔為記名提督,后來由北洋大臣李鴻章保舉做了北洋水師提督,丁汝昌的出身的確是陸軍,那李鴻章為什么要安排他做水師提督呢?李鴻章他有私心,因為丁汝昌是安徽老鄉又是老淮軍,加上為人厚道,李鴻章用他就是要把北洋水師牢牢的控制在自己手中。

        北洋水師旗艦定遠號,它和鎮遠艦一樣都是大型鐵甲艦,排水量7600噸,亞洲最大,而尤其值得一提的是鋼甲厚度300毫米。這是個什么概念呢?在甲午海戰之后人們進行一個分析發現114毫米剛巧是當時海軍的炮彈能不能打穿的一個界限,114毫米一下的鋼板是可以打穿的,114毫米以上的是打不穿的,定遠、鎮遠兩艘巨艦完全就是個鐵疙瘩根本就打不動,亞洲就兩艘全在中國,這也是北洋水師為什么號稱亞洲第一的原因,日本的吉野號英國造的巡洋艦排水量4100噸,跟日本旗艦松島號基本一個級別但是吉野號航速更快。

        為什么要布雁翎陣呢?中間定遠、鎮遠的位置相對突出,丁汝昌的目的,其一,就是憑借兩艘巨艦的鐵甲扛住日本軍艦的火力,來保護其它的弱艦。其二,布雁翎陣還有一個原因就是當時的火炮定遠艦上安裝有德國著名的大炮克虜伯巨炮口徑305毫米,當時最大發射320公斤的炮彈,這樣的炮彈一但擊中只要兩發日本軍艦基本玩完,定遠號上有4門都裝在船首位置,鎮遠號也一樣。把主炮裝在船首這是當時最流行的一個設計,以前的主炮都是裝在船的兩側,到了19世紀中期因為火炮的發展設計變了,當時的北洋水師是已經跟上了世界海軍的步伐的,而這種設計也決定了只有雁翎陣才能發揮出最大的威力。

        日本艦隊排的是一字縱隊。既然流行雁翎陣,為什么這場海戰主流陣型就輸給了傳統陣型了呢?這里還真有值得咱們警醒的地方,當年日本沒錢,買不起頂級艦船,但是面對擴張的第一步還得面對北洋水師,一連好幾年日本都在研究對付北洋水師的辦法,后來他們終于發現克虜伯大炮雖然威力大但是有個最大的弱點就是發射速度慢,幾分鐘才能發一發,對付它的辦法就是快。(悠悠千古事www.bjzhmgsls.com)日本軍艦的主力大炮名叫哈奇開斯跑,雖然口徑只有47毫米但是每分鐘可以發射十多發炮彈,所以也叫速射炮。日本人也不是傻種,雖然好炮買不起,小炮還是可以多多益善的,當時日本每一艘艦船都裝有81門速射炮,全裝在船舷兩側。可當時中方這樣的大炮很悲劇只有3門,這也是日本聯合艦隊當年為什么采用一字縱隊的主要原因充分發揮船舷兩側速射炮的優勢,這件事也告訴我們只要日本擴張的賊心不死他們一定會弄出點名堂。

        第一種說法就是說的清政府的大意,大臣稟報慈禧日本海軍在擴充艦船慈禧聽后說“咱這大清受洋人欺負忍了就算了,這東洋一個小國能泛起什么浪呀!”就這句話有人認為甲午海戰其實還沒打就注定了失敗。第二種說話是北洋水師失敗其實早已注定,真相很嚇人,有人研究發現北洋水師亞洲第一的稱號是假的,懂軍事的讀友都知道,艦隊的戰斗力有戰艦的排水量決定的,我們列一下數據就知道了,北洋水師從1875開始組建到1888年成軍總排水量27000噸,而日本海軍到1890的時候不過17000噸,當時的北洋水師號稱亞洲第一這一點不假,但是到開戰時北洋水師的總排水量不到40000噸,但是日本的聯合艦隊已經達到了72000噸,多出了北洋水師將近一倍,為什么會這樣呢?那幾年清政府干了幾件大事,說起來也確實夠大。第一件重修頤和園耗資幾千萬兩白銀,有人計算過假如拿這些銀子買定遠號這樣的巨無霸可以買10艘,第二件光緒大婚耗費白銀600萬兩,可以買2艘巨無霸,但可悲的是這僅僅是假設,有人可能會認為清政府不思進取注定要失敗,這一點說的也不無道理。這么大手筆的花錢以至于到最后炮彈都買不起了,有人統計過黃海大戰北洋水師平均沒搜艦船中彈102發,日本艦船平均中彈卻只有11發,雙方中彈比例達到了9:1.原因就是打到后來北洋艦隊沒炮彈了。

        后來故宮絕密檔案揭曉了:修頤和園用掉了600萬兩白銀。加上光緒大婚一共才用掉1200萬兩白銀,1200萬兩白銀,不足以讓偌大的一個海軍水師沒有炮彈打啊。

        查閱史料《上督辦軍務處查驗北洋海軍稟》:參加過黃海大戰的定遠、鎮遠、靖遠、來遠、濟遠、廣丙7艘戰艦的庫存炮彈僅開花爆破彈就多達3421枚,其中3071枚早已撥給了北洋海軍。這些炮彈都去哪兒了呢?后來經史料查閱,當時炮彈是有的但是都沒有在船上,都在威海衛和旅順軍港庫放著呢!這就我們說的甲午海戰是個悲劇就悲在了這里。至于為什么有炮彈沒帶上船至今還是個迷。

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