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      當前位置:悠悠千古事 > 戰史風云 > 為何秦朝一統僅15年便迅速滅亡?

      為何秦朝一統僅15年便迅速滅亡?

      發布時間:2017-12-12  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

        為何秦朝一統僅15年便迅速滅亡?從公元前221年秦王嬴政統一六國,稱“始皇”始,至公元前207年秦王子嬰向劉邦投降止,秦自誕生至滅亡,只有短短15年,堪稱“史上最短命帝國”。但值得回味的是,從秦孝公時期“商鞅變法”為起點,秦國一直呈現出逐步壯大的局面,它的興盛是因為經歷了數代經營,建立起了極有效的國家戰爭機器,但為何統一六國以后,只過了15年秦便滅亡了?

        為何秦朝一統僅15年便迅速滅亡?秦朝最致命的問題在于這幾點原因:

        一、這個政權的建立是有基因缺陷的——始皇是以武力統一天下的,原本屬于各國的百姓都不可避免地會有故國情懷,而當下秦朝的政權合法性還未能獲得舉世的公認,從理論上講,對于秦朝來說,最重要的事情莫過于奠定政權合法性的基礎;或者從實際行動上講,使基層百姓感受到新政權帶來的溫暖;再不濟,也應該請一些御用文人鼓噪吶喊一番:“始皇是天子,秦國統一天下是必然!”

        二、秦國的法治推行了100多年之后,其本身已經逐步地走向了僵化。第一,史記陳勝世家中記載陳勝吳廣因為延誤了戍期,法令失期當斬,導致陳勝吳廣遂反。但是大雨應該是一個相當有力的免責或減責事由,但是陳勝吳廣卻并不認為有這樣的可能性。我國學者寧漢林就曾指出:秦朝刑律之失,在于不區分情節,只要發生刑律中所規定的后果,一律論處。

        三、秦朝官吏的執法過于粗暴。秦國是個耕戰國家,獎勵軍功。統一之后原本應該早日結束的軍事管制制度被無限期延長了。秦朝的地方官吏多為軍人(如滅韓的將領叫內史騰,之后即為秦守韓地),他們缺乏應有的執法素質,手段往往粗暴。比如押送陳勝吳廣的那兩個尉,“吳廣忿圭尉”“尉果笞廣”。也因為這樣,在陳勝起義之后,“諸郡縣苦秦吏者,皆刑其長吏,殺之以應陳涉”,甚至有的秦朝官吏已經表明態度要依從起義轉而伐秦(如吳守令),百姓仍然不原諒他們。

        四、秦朝政府運作失效和地方武力的缺乏。陳勝吳廣在起義之后也不過是一群亡命徒,但是就是這樣的亡命徒在起事之后,以數百人之眾,就能“攻大澤鄉,收而攻蘄。蘄下,乃令符離人葛嬰將兵徇蘄以東。攻铚﹑酇﹑苦﹑柘﹑譙皆下之。行收兵。”由此可見秦朝政府運作失效和地方武力的缺乏。

        五、從陳勝吳廣以扶蘇和項燕為號召來看(而根本不顧后者的國家正是被前者的父親所伐滅),顯然百姓只是恨那些官吏和苛政,對秦室并無特殊的惡感。

        六、秦朝的徭役過于嚴重,并伴有族群間的歧視。稍微一觀察,我們發現,劉邦、項羽、英布等秦末梟雄,幾乎無一例外的都是關東人,而且他們幾乎都有在關中服徭役的經歷。就目前對始皇帝陵邊修陵民工瓦當的發掘來看,記載的籍貫幾乎無一例外都是關東地區的郡縣。秦朝修筑直道,伐匈奴百越,所需要的糧草大部分來源于關東地區。我記得探索與發現當中有一期說秦朝伐匈奴的糧草來自于齊地的,運糧食的車隊要2次翻越太行山,3次度過黃河,每65.5石糧食中只有1石可以到達前線。由此可見對關東經濟的掠奪到了什么程度。

        七、秦國的統一進程具有殖民征服般的政策,這使得關東人遭受了極大的苦難。秦國凡攻略一地,必奪其地,遷徙秦民居之。史記·秦本紀記載,秦昭襄王二十一年“錯攻魏河內。魏獻安邑,秦出其人,募徙河東賜爵,赦罪人遷之”;“二十六年,赦罪人遷之穰。侯厓復相。二十七年,錯攻楚。赦罪人遷之南陽”;三十四年,秦與魏、韓上庸地為一郡,南陽免臣遷居之”;等等等等。這也是上面所說劉邦、項羽、英布等秦末梟雄,幾乎無一例外的都是關東人,而且他們幾乎都有在關中服徭役的經歷的原因。而且,秦國關中地區的人只是苦于嚴厲的法律,而并不是苦于徭役,他們的經濟并沒有受非常大的損耗。這也是為什么在秦末大起義之后,所有的爆發點都在關東,而關中地區始終沒有發出一叮點火花;劉邦進關只是約法三章,就使得民大悅;在楚漢戰爭中,劉邦占有了關中,糧秣極為充足的原因了。

        為何秦朝一統僅15年便迅速滅亡?總結下來就是,秦始皇統一六國國力耗費巨大,統一之后,大修皇陵,筑兵馬俑,修直道和馳道,北擊匈奴,修萬里長城,南征百越,修靈渠,還帶領數十萬人馬巡行全國,這每一件都是軍國大事,而秦始皇統一后在位十年,這些事他全做了,國力民力透支嚴重,而統一之后,需要的是休養生息,那些恢弘的事情得一件一件,幾代人去做。秦二世即位后,仍然濫用民力,陳勝吳廣揭竿而起,六國勛貴紛紛借機而起,一夜之間關東出現了數十萬大軍,而真正使秦國覆滅的,并非陳勝吳廣的農民起義,而是舊六國的勛貴舊戚,他們在統一之后便蓄謀復國,秘密訓練軍隊,農民起義只是個引子,要不然,也不會在一夜之間出現幾十萬訓練有素的軍了。以上是外因。秦二世寵信趙高打壓正直,大肆屠戮有功的將軍和朝臣,秦朝中央有能力的正直忠良不是被殺,就是隱退,要不在農民起義時,派一個管稅收的少府做統帥了,內外相擊,大秦這個巨人倒下了。

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