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      悠悠千古事 | 我要投稿

      當前位置:悠悠千古事 > 戰史風云 > 李自成起義過程與失敗原因

      李自成起義過程與失敗原因

      發布時間:2017-03-29  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

        一提到“闖王”,大家一定會想到李自成,其實,歷史上叫“闖王”的有三人,分別是高迎祥、李自成、李來亨。其中高迎祥是第一個自稱“闖王”的人。

        1628年,高迎祥起義反明,隨著起義軍規模的不斷擴大,高迎祥等人也意識到了聯合的重要性,于是他聯合諸路聯軍,組成36營,高迎祥是領袖之一,被手下稱為闖王。

        李自成在1630年率饑民起義,先投起義軍不沾泥,后投高迎祥,由于李自成作戰勇猛果敢,被手下稱為闖將,同時也被高迎祥所器重。

        后來,高迎祥兵敗被殺之后,李自成就自然而然的繼承了高迎祥的“闖王”稱號。李自成繼位之后,大肆收攏民心,打下了堅實的群眾基礎,在龐大的人民群眾的免費宣傳下,李自成的“闖王”稱號越來越為人們所知。

        出了對高迎祥的尊重之外,李自成繼承“闖王”這一稱號的一個重要原因還是農民階級的特有的局限性。李自成自己讀書不多,對于“闖”這個字,在他的理解之中,“闖”就是勇猛,不屈服的意思,很符合他本人的性格特點,所以李自成很欣然的繼承了“闖王”的稱號。

        李自成兵敗之后,起義軍在不確定他的生死之后,決定由有“小闖王”之稱的李來亨擔任起義軍的領袖。自幼跟隨李自成南征北戰的李來亨,從小對李自成崇拜不已,自然也就接過李自成的傳承你,自稱“闖王”,率領起義軍繼續與清廷抗爭。

        李自成起義的原因有很多,他的起義是歷史的大勢所趨,只不過他很好地順應了這個大勢。確切的來說,李自成起義的原因有三。一是明末裁驛,導致當時的他失去飯碗;二是明末混亂,民不聊生;三是李自成的個人所具有的反抗精神。

        明崇禎初年,“節儉”的崇禎皇帝為了節省國家開支,貼補皇宮專用。在沒有經過深思熟慮的情況下,發布了一個或許會令他后悔終生的命令,那就是裁撤驛卒。這樣做的后果就是,皇宮在今后的一年時間里不用為了經費而發愁,但是這也導致了大批被裁撤的驛卒加入到當時的反抗軍當中,因此命令而失去飯碗的李自成也在其中。

        電影《大明劫》中花了很大的篇幅去描述明末的社會亂象,中央政府混亂不堪,政令不通,地方政府官員貪污成風,基層的鄉紳和地方官員勾結大肆占地,底層的民眾更是食不果腹,苦不堪言。而此時被蒙在鼓里的崇禎皇帝不但沒有一點體恤民生的舉動,反而還向陜北農民加重賦稅。這一舉動使得本來就生存艱難的農民不得不舉起反抗的大旗,同樣受害的李自成自然就加入到起義軍之中。

        李自成尚武厭文,從小就喜歡舞刀弄棒,成人之后的他更是勇猛好斗,也因為數次和別人斗毆進了監牢。由此可以看出,李自成是具有反抗精神的人物,在失去飯碗,吃不飽穿不暖的時候,他所能想到的就是反抗,反抗這個令他痛苦的源頭。

        李自成是明朝末年農民起義的領袖,鼎盛時期的李自成大概有一百萬人的軍隊,管轄地區也有數千里,還攻克了明朝的皇宮,但是在面對只有十余萬的清吳聯軍卻失敗了,這是為什么呢?我們下面就來看一下李自成失敗的原因。

        《江山風雨情》李自成劇照

        李自成之所以會失敗的原因有很多,第一個原因就是缺乏過硬的軍事實力,通俗點講的話,就是沒有一支精兵。李自成雖然擁有一百萬人的軍隊,但是我們都知道,行軍打仗,兵貴在精而不在多。李自成的軍隊中,能稱得上精銳的應該不超過十萬人。在山海關大戰時,清軍先讓吳三桂的軍隊消耗了李自成的大部分兵力,再將清軍的核心軍隊也就是就是六萬的滿洲八旗軍投入戰場,如此做法,李自成必然大敗。

        還有一個原因就是李自成沒有正確的認識到自己的對手到底是誰。李自成的軍隊只滿足于打敗了明朝的殘余軍官,奪得了京城就結束了,卻不知道其實四處都有想要奪取天下的人。當時那個時候,李自成的對手應該還有許多,比如明朝殘余勢力、地主武裝、張獻忠的大西軍、清朝政權和蒙古各部等。

        在有這么多對手的情況下,李自成把明朝作為主要對手,而對政治影響力明顯增強的清朝毫無關心。況且努爾哈赤的后金軍早在李自成起義之前,就曾消滅了明朝的部分兵力,這一點,李自成竟然沒有重視,于是就導致了最后的失敗。

        有關李自成兵敗后的去向,目前民間的說法有兩種,一種是李自成兵敗后削發僧,一種李自成兵敗被殺。

        李自成削發為僧說法主要是清乾隆年間的一個名叫何知洲的書生提出來的。因為他曾在夾山看到了一個法名叫“奉天玉”的和尚的畫像,畫像上的和尚和史書上的李自成的摸樣描述特別像。另外,李自成在起義的時候也曾號稱自己是“奉天倡義大元帥”,而這個和尚的法名叫“奉天玉”,這么奇怪的法名,除了暗示一些東西,其他的真想不出什么好的理由來解釋了。還有就是,據和尚的徒弟說,“奉天玉”和尚身上的帝王之氣很明顯,使人都不敢正眼相視。“奉天玉”和尚所流傳下來的詩文和李自成的口吻氣勢很像,這是李自成出家的最好的佐證。

        當然,有人認為只以一些詩文就判斷李自成出家了,未免太武斷,另外奉天玉和尚的畫像與史書上的對于李自成的描述還是有很大的出入的,所以他們認為李自成是戰死于九宮山的。

        有關李自成戰死在九宮山的說法又有好幾種。一說李自成在戰敗之后,帶領著二十幾名隨身軍士逃到九宮山,被清軍圍困,最終上吊自殺了。還有一說是李自成在逃到了九宮山之后,被困山林,由于饑餓難當,于是帶領幾個手下找到機會來到上下的村子里找吃的。吃飽喝足之后,李自成發現一個元帝廟,于是前去拜祭祈求上天庇佑,最后被一個農民拿著鋤頭從后面捶碎了腦袋,甚至還有人說這個村民最后還憑此在當地當了一個小官。

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