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      隋朝統一:隋滅陳之戰

      發布時間:2017-12-06  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

        隋滅陳之戰是南北朝末期的統一戰爭。580年北周宣帝去世后,權臣楊堅于隔年廢北周靜帝自立,建立隋朝,即隋文帝。在安定內部、解決北方突厥的外患以及并吞西梁后,隋開皇八年(588年)十二月至次年二月,在隋統一戰爭中,隋文帝楊堅命令晉王楊廣統率水陸大軍50余萬,攻滅江南陳朝的大規模渡江作戰。此役逼降陳后主陳叔寶,陳亡。并陸續招降三吳、嶺南等地區。隋文帝完成了大一統,成功結束紛亂近400年的魏晉南北朝時期。

        隋滅陳之戰的歷史背景

        南北朝末期,北周、突厥和陳朝三個主要政權并存。北周宣帝死后,丞相楊堅掌管朝政。公元581年二月,北周靜帝禪讓,楊堅登基建立隋朝,仍建都長安。當時隋朝領域大體包括長江以北,漢代長城以南,東至沿海、西達四川的廣大地區。楊堅在北周和北齊的基礎上,進一步采取一系列加強君主集權、發展社會經濟的措施,使隋的政治、軍事和經濟力量日益壯大。

        而江南陳朝傳至后主陳叔寶時,保有長江以南、西陵峽以東到東南沿海的400余縣、200余萬人口。政治腐朽,上下猜忌,賦稅繁重,府庫空虛,刑法殘暴,人民怨聲載道;后主沉醉于酒色,疏于戒備,憑借長江阻遏隋軍進攻。

        北方突厥為游牧奴隸社會,自6世紀中期崛起,至沙缽略可汗時,控制著長城以北,貝加爾湖以南,興安嶺以西,黑海以東的遼闊地域,擁有騎兵數十萬。因隋王朝停止對其和親,不斷興兵南犯,威脅隋的統治。但當時突厥有四可汗,各擁重兵,沙缽略與阿波、達頭等可汗不和,為隋制勝突厥提供了有利條件。

        文帝曾準備先滅陳朝,后擊突厥。突厥沙缽略可汗因其妻為北周千金公主,便以為北周復仇為借口,聯合原北齊營州刺史高寶寧,于十二月攻占臨榆鎮(今河北撫寧東,一說今山海關)。并聯絡各部,準備大舉攻隋。文帝根據隋朝新立,邊防不固,實力尚不夠充實等情況,決定變更原來計劃,改取南和北戰,先敗突厥,后滅陳朝的戰略。583年四月隋文帝兵分八路,對突厥發動反擊。并且用長孫晟的離間之計,最后使突厥汗國分裂為東突厥與西突厥兩部,讓四可汗為了汗位自相殘殺。584年沙缽略可汗因為對隋作戰不利,向隋朝求和。至此北部邊患基本消除,解除了南下滅陳的后顧之憂。

        隋朝備戰

        隋文帝加緊滅陳準備。繼續推行均田制和租調力役制,在中央建立三省六部制,在地方推行州、縣制,改革府兵制等措施,以利于發展社會經濟,加強中央集權,提高軍隊戰斗力。又經過幾年勵精圖治,國力、軍力顯著增強。開皇五年十月,文帝以清河公楊素為倌州總管,經略長江上游。同時在三年內,動員數十萬人修繕朔方(治巖綠,今內蒙古烏審旗南白城子)、靈武(治回樂,今寧夏靈武西南)一帶長城,并于朔方以東緣邊險要,筑城數十,以加強北部邊防,保障南進時后方無憂。

        隋文帝經過數年準備后,終于決定遣兵滅陳以完成一統。公元587年(開皇七年),廢西梁后主蕭琮,占領江陵,西梁亡。同年十一月,隋文帝與宰臣謀議伐陳之策。尚書左仆射高颎提出:“在江南收獲季節,以少數兵力,聲言進襲,迫陳集兵守御,以誤其農時;彼既聚兵,我便解甲,如此多次,使陳軍習以為常,麻痹懈怠,然后舉兵渡江,登陸攻擊,派人潛入陳境,反復縱火,焚其儲備物資,使其財力俱盡。”

        虢州刺史崔仲方提出:“在武昌(今湖北鄂州)以東沿江各要地部署精兵,秘密準備渡江,在益(治今成都)、信(治今四川奉節東)、襄(治今湖北襄樊)、荊(治今湖北江陵)等地速造戰船,準備水戰;陳如以精兵赴援上游,下游諸將即可乘虛渡江,如陳擁兵自衛,上游諸軍則可順江東下,直取建康(今南京)。”

        楊素、賀若弼等也爭獻平陳之策。隋文帝均予以采納。攻陳前,隋令介州刺史李衍在襄州道、楊素于巴東郡(治今四川奉節東)建造“五牙”(裝有拍竿的大型戰艦)、“黃龍”等戰船,加強水師。故意在江中漂下造船廢料,以威懾陳人。賀若弼賣掉老馬,大量購買陳船,藏匿起來,又買破舊船只五六十艘,泊于小河,使陳軍以為隋軍沒有戰船。多次將換防士兵集于廣陵,大張旗幟,營幕遍野,還使士卒沿江射獵,人馬喧噪,以迷惑陳軍,使之不加戒備。

        公元588年(開皇八年)三月,隋文帝下詔,列舉陳后主罪行又送璽書暴其罪惡二十條,并將詔書在江南散發三十萬份,以爭取人心。

        同年十月設置淮南行省於壽春,以晉王楊廣為尚書令統籌各路兵馬,以高熲為元帥長史決斷行軍謀略,率八十總管、五十一萬八千名士兵南征。

        這八路分為中上游與下游兩部,行軍元帥秦王楊俊統帥中上游三路,他率水陸軍由襄陽進屯漢口,以阻擋中游陳軍支援下游南朝陳首都建康。行軍元帥清河公楊素率舟師出永安(今四川奉節)東下,荊州刺史劉仁恩出江陵與楊素會和,最后抵達漢口與楊俊軍會和。楊素與劉仁恩軍負責驅趕長江中游一帶的陳軍到漢口圍殲。

        行軍元帥楊廣統帥下游五路,他率領韓擒虎、賀若弼專攻建康,命王世積與燕榮為左右翼協攻江西、三吳。楊廣率軍出六合,廬州總管韓擒虎出廬江(今安徽合肥),吳州總管賀若弼出廣陵(今江蘇揚州),這三路集中圍攻建康。蘄州刺史王世積率舟師出蘄春(今湖北蘄春北)攻九江掩護楊廣主力軍。青州總管燕榮率舟師出東海(今江蘇連云港)沿海迂回南下入太湖,以奇襲吳縣(今江蘇蘇州),深入三吳以支援楊廣主力軍。隋廷在進軍之前,扣留陳使,斷絕往來,以保守軍事機密。并且派出大批間諜潛入陳境,進行破壞、擾亂活動。

        隋軍南征

        陳后主荒淫驕侈,政治腐敗,既不懂軍事,又不納部將建議,自恃“長江天塹”,疏于防務。為了元會(即春節)之慶,竟命鎮守緣江重鎮江州(治今江西九江)、南徐州(治今江蘇鎮江)的兩個兒子率戰船回建康,致使江防更為薄弱。十二月,長江上游隋軍首先發起進攻。

        公元588年(開皇八年)十二月,楊俊督水陸軍十余萬出襄陽(今屬湖北),進屯漢口(今湖北漢水入長江之口)。陳命散騎常侍周羅喉都督巴峽緣江軍事,與郢州刺史荀法尚部數萬,據守江夏,同楊俊軍相峙月余。

        同月,隋行軍總管周法尚率舟師三萬,進至樊口(今湖北鄂州西),擊破抗拒的陳軍。楊素率水軍出巴東,沿三峽東進,荊州刺史劉仁恩部由江陵西上,兩軍配合,水陸兼用,襲占狼尾灘(今湖北宜昌西北),擊敗陳守將戚昕;陳南康內史呂忠肅死守歧亭(今湖北宜昌西北西陵峽口),以三條鐵鎖橫江阻斷隋軍東出三峽。楊素、劉仁恩率水陸聯軍強攻,直到公元589年(開皇九年)正月擊破陳軍,占領西陵峽口。

        陳荊州刺史陳慧紀屯公安(今湖北公安西北),見大勢已去,便率軍三萬、樓船千余艘,順江東走,企圖入援建康,卻與周羅睺被楊俊軍阻于漢口以西,陳軍最后無法救援建康。楊素繼以主力沿江東下,與楊俊軍會師漢口,另派一部南下湘州(治今湖南長沙),擊擒陳岳陽王陳叔慎,至此長江中游已非陳國所有。

        飛渡長江

        當隋軍陸續占領長江上游的消息傳到建康時,均被朝廷掌管機密的施文慶、沈客卿扣壓,使得建康城毫無防備。隋軍進至長江北岸時,施文慶又以元會(春節)將至,拒絕出兵加強京口(今江蘇鎮江)、采石(今安徽馬鞍山市西南),等地軍備。

        公元589年(開皇九年)正月初一,長江下游隋軍乘陳歡度元會之際,分路渡江。賀若弼軍出廣陵南渡,韓擒虎軍出廬江由橫江口(今安徽和縣東南)夜渡,襲占采石(今安徽馬鞍山市西南),晉王楊廣軍出六合(今屬江蘇)進屯桃葉山(今六合東南)。初四,陳叔寶察覺事態不利,下詔親帥陳軍拒敵。命驃騎將軍蕭摩訶、護軍將軍樊毅、中領軍魯廣達并為都督;又派南豫州刺史樊猛率水軍堅守白下(今南京城北金川門外),抵御六合方面隋軍;以散騎常侍皋文奏率部鎮守南豫州(治姑熟,今安徽當涂)。隋軍突破長江防線后積極推進,初六,賀若弼軍攻占京口(今江蘇鎮江),俘南徐州刺史黃恪。所俘六千余人,均優待釋放。隨后賀若弼以一部進屯曲阿(今江蘇丹陽),以防三吳(今江蘇太湖以東、以南和浙江紹興等)陳軍增援,自率主力西進;韓擒虎軍于初七攻占姑熟,沿江東進,皋文奏軍敗退建康。

        隋軍渡長江后積極推進,賀若弼於京口派一部隋軍於曲阿 (今江蘇丹陽)阻擋三吳地區(今江蘇太湖以東、以南和浙江紹興等)的陳軍北援,主力持續向建康前進;韓擒虎擊敗陳軍,占領姑孰(今安徽當涂)后,沿江直下,皋文奏敗退建康。正月初七日,賀若弼進屯鐘山(今南京紫金山)以南的白土崗;韓擒虎和由南陵(今安徽銅陵附近)渡江的杜彥軍在新林(今南京西南)會合;宇文述軍於白下擊敗陳軍后,進占石頭城(在今南京城西清涼山)。隋軍占領建康外圍城市,完整包圍南朝陳的首都。為配合隋軍主力進攻,王世積軍也成功由蘄春攻占蘄口(今蘄春西南),大敗陳將紀填,逼近江西鄱陽湖。燕榮水師也由山東沿海南下,占領三吳地區。

        攻破建康

        建康地勢虎踞龍盤,向稱險要,在建康附近的陳軍仍然有十萬。然而陳后主不采納部將建議,乘隋軍包圍之際切割敵軍。他放棄鐘山、石頭等險地,將主力固守建康城內外,白白的讓隋軍包圍建康城。賀若弼至京口時,蕭摩訶請求出戰,陳后主不準。而后蕭摩訶得知陳后主竟和他的妻子私通,就也擁兵不前,唯獨讓魯廣達、田瑞奮勇作戰。15日,陳鎮東大將軍任忠率軍自吳興(今浙江湖州南)入援建康,陳后主也只讓他駐守朱雀門(建康城南門宣陽門南2.5里)。

        589年1月20日,陳后主在「兵久不決,令人腹煩」的情況下,對賀若弼軍發動白土岡之戰。他倉促的派魯廣達、任忠、樊毅、孔范與蕭摩訶率軍出戰,於白土岡南北列長蛇陣20里,首尾進退互不相知。賀若弼軍初戰不利,然后集中攻破薄弱的孔范軍。陳軍全線潰退,賀若弼從北掖門攻入臺城(建康宮城)。(悠悠千古事www.bjzhmgsls.com)韓擒虎軍占領秦淮河南岸石子岡(今江蘇南京雨花臺)后,陳將任忠請降,開北岸朱雀門迎韓擒虎入城。當時陳后主身邊大臣只有尚書左仆射袁憲一人。袁憲建議如同梁武帝見侯景故事,莊嚴的向隋軍投降。但是陳后主畏懼而不從,與愛妃張麗華、孔貴人躲到枯井里面。最后被韓擒虎俘虜,陳滅亡 。當夜,賀若弼軍也從北掖門入城。

        降伏嶺南

        建康被隋軍攻下后,南朝陳尚領有長江中游、三吳與嶺南地區。589年1月22日,楊廣進入建康,命令陳后主發令招降各地陳軍投降。堅守江夏的周羅睺、陳慧紀與守備長江中游諸城的守將陸續投降,三吳地區的吳州(今江蘇吳縣)、會稽(今浙江紹興市)二城堅守拒降,嶺南守將徐璒阻擋隋使韋洸於南康前,不愿意歸附隋朝。于是楊廣率軍南下三吳、嶺南等地,各地陳軍或受陳后主號令投降、或抵抗隋軍而被消滅。

        嶺南地區早在南朝梁侯景之亂時,就受冼夫人控制。冼夫人率兵擊破梁高州刺史李遷仕后掌控嶺南,并與都督陳霸先合作。陳霸先后來創建陳朝后。冼夫人多次平定叛亂,保境安民,被當地俚漢人尊為“圣母”。楊廣得知此事后,命令陳后主致書冼夫人,使其歸隋。為了證明是真的,還將冼夫人曾經獻給陳帝的扶南犀杖及陳后主的兵符給她確認。冼夫人見到信及物件后,確定陳朝已亡,便派孫子馮魂迎隋使韋洸到嶺南。各地至此才聞風歸附,從此全部歸隋朝管轄。

        至此,隋文帝完成了大一統,成功結束紛亂近400年的魏晉南北朝時期。

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