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      當前位置:悠悠千古事 > 戰史風云 > 淝水之戰:以少勝多的背后,一定有著不為人知的以多勝少

      淝水之戰:以少勝多的背后,一定有著不為人知的以多勝少

      發布時間:2017-11-30  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

        淝水之戰,是東晉時期最著名的一場戰役。

        這一戰,東晉憑借八萬兵力,完敗前秦百萬雄師,成為中國歷史上以少勝多的戰爭典范。

        然而,回顧整個交戰過程,晉軍似乎贏得玄乎其玄,秦軍也輸得莫名其妙。這樣兩支看似力量懸殊的隊伍,為何最終卻打出了顛覆性的一局?到底是偶然還是必然?是實力還是運氣?

        本期《那些年》,就帶你揭秘疑團重重的淝水之戰。

        兵力懸殊,以弱勝強

        淝水之戰的交戰雙方,一個是盤踞北方的前秦帝國,一個是偏安江左的東晉王朝。

        率先挑起戰爭的是前秦皇帝苻堅。公元383年,在統一了北方大地之后,苻堅的雄心壯志攀至頂峰,他決定,親率百萬大軍,揮師南下直取東晉,從而一舉統一全國。面對旁人的阻撓和告誡,苻堅曾胸有成竹地說道,“怕什么長江天險,以我百萬之眾,每個人投一根鞭子,也能讓江水斷流”。

        苻堅的強勢來襲,令整個東晉朝野為之震動。東晉宰相謝安擔任軍事總指揮,命弟弟謝石、侄子謝玄率領八萬北府兵開赴前線。面對前秦的百萬雄師,幾位年輕將領心里完全沒底兒。直到發兵前一晚,謝安還在幫他們平定心情。

        一方志在必得,一方忐忑不安,雙方的備戰狀態,也在一定程度上暴露了實力上的差距。但是,隨著戰事的不斷推進,一切預設都被推翻了。

        八月,兩軍主力,隔著淝水展開對峙。謝石主動派人到前秦軍隊使用激將法:咱們這么隔岸對壘,這是要打持久戰嗎?有本事你就往后退退,待我們過了江,來場公平較量!

        對于晉軍的要求,前秦高層多半認為不可接受。但苻堅卻認為這是一個絕好的機會。秦軍可以先假裝后退,誘使晉兵渡河,等晉兵渡到一半時,秦軍忽然以騎兵沖殺,定能大勝。苻堅的弟弟——征東大將軍苻融,也深以為然。

        從理論上講,這是一個不壞的戰術。但是接下來發生的事,卻是苻堅始料未及的——撤退的命令一下達,軍隊就忽然失控了!

        當時秦軍人數眾多,首尾不能相顧,后方士兵只能看到前方隊伍向后移動,并不清楚發生了什么事,只管跟著人流移動。

        就在這時,東晉詐降的將領朱序,突然大喊,“秦軍敗矣!秦軍敗矣”!信以為真的秦軍將士們,頓時陷入一片慌亂,甚至也跟著朱序喊起來。

        整個隊伍,開始毫無秩序地向后撤退,前面有人摔倒,后面的人就踩著過去……至此,淝水之戰已經演變成一場大規模的踩踏事件。對方還未開打,秦軍早已不戰自潰。

        苻融在馬上大呼,想要阻止后退的軍隊,但根本沒人搭理他。亂軍之中,苻融自己也從馬上跌落,被趕上來的東晉士兵亂刀砍死。

        晉兵乘機追殺,秦軍大敗。前秦帝國很快土崩瓦解。東晉政權面臨的一次重大覆滅危機,就這樣被解除。

        秦軍VS晉軍,到底孰強孰弱?

        從表面上看,淝水之戰是一場摻雜著偶然性和戲劇性的逆襲之戰。但事實上,雙方的實力卻并非我們想象得那么懸殊。這一戰,與其說是前秦被東晉打敗,倒不如說是前秦自己打敗了自己。

        前秦大軍能“投鞭斷流”不假,但能不能打勝仗還是另外一碼事。聽起來不可一世的“百萬士兵”,其實都是朝廷從男丁中“十抽其一”強征而來的,不僅無法保證戰斗力,還搞得后方民怨沸騰。

        據史料推算,淝水之戰前,前秦全國人口約1800萬,這其中胡人數量約490萬,而作為統治者的氐人,僅有100萬人。所以,百萬大軍之中,大部分都是強征而來的烏合之眾,真正能打能拼的,恐怕只有《資治通鑒》中記載的30萬前鋒軍。更重要的是,除氐族以外的胡人其實各懷異心,他們隨時準備取苻堅而代之呢,哪情愿為苻堅拼命賣力?

        所以,這其實是一支成分混雜、語言不通、軍事素養參差不齊,又極其缺乏凝聚力的隊伍。如此看來,最后的失控,其實并非偶然事件。

        反觀東晉的北府兵,雖然在數量上不占優勢,但在兵源和士氣上卻要遠強于對方。

        北府,古之京口,即今天的揚州鎮江一代。孝武帝開元二年,謝玄受命在此組建新軍,名為“北府兵”。

        當時在京口一代有眾多從北方逃來的難民,他們個個身負國恨家仇,又因長期經歷戰亂,很多人練就了一副好身手。(悠悠千古事www.bjzhmgsls.com)謝玄到任后,便挑選其中驍勇善戰者組組建隊,并加以訓練,強化軍紀。經過幾年的打造,逐漸鑄就了一支精銳之師。而且,在淝水之戰以前,北府兵已經與前秦有過多次交手。

        淝水之戰,兩軍雖未正面較量,但是經過了系統訓練和實戰打磨的北府兵,其戰斗力未必弱于對方浩浩蕩蕩的烏合之眾。

        當然,決定一場戰爭勝敗的因素不可勝數。但是表面上的四兩撥千斤,背后往往有著更強勁的力量在抗衡。

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