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      當前位置:悠悠千古事 > 戰史風云 > 長平之戰的現實思考

      長平之戰的現實思考

      發布時間:2017-11-17  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

        戰國歷史上最重要一戰——“長平之戰”歷來為人們所關注。這場由秦國名將、被后人稱為“戰神”的白起指揮的秦趙兩國會戰,經歷大體如下:戰國末期,秦伐韓國上黨,守將馮亭以上黨降趙,趙國采納平原君(戰國四公子之一)意見,納上黨而出兵御秦,從而與秦國兵戎相見于長平。這場戰爭以趙“卒四十萬人降武安君(白起封號)”,白起“乃挾詐而盡坑殺之”結束。史料主要源自《史記·白起王翦列傳》中的記載。

        然而,這場著名戰役背后隱藏著許多歷史疑點值得我們探究和深思。

        首先,長平之戰在總參戰人數上存在“歷史疑點”。按照司馬遷的記載,這場戰爭,秦趙兩國各投入50余萬“作戰力量”。而實際上,受制于當時的生產力水平(包括人口生產能力)和動員能力,秦趙兩國都不可能投入這么多兵力。正如后世軍隊出征經常“號稱百萬”,實際只有“十余萬”一樣,長平之戰雙方兵力都有“虛詐”成分。比如按照“戰神”白起自己的說法,長平之戰秦軍本身傷亡過半:“今秦雖破長平軍,而秦卒死者過半,國內空。”假設秦軍總兵力與趙軍相當,約50萬,那么在趙軍投降前秦軍就已戰死了20余萬。在這樣的兵力對比下,趙軍不可能以40萬降20萬;另一方面,勝利方秦國以“五十多萬兵力”勞師遠征(作戰地域長平距秦軍首都咸陽有千里之遠),在遠離國土的形勢下竟能連續作戰近3年之久。而在冷兵器時代,確保后勤供應的通常作法是以“三民餉一兵”。如果秦軍真如司馬遷所記載的那樣投入數十萬之眾,按照每個士兵平均每天吃兩斤糧食來計算,每天就要消耗100多萬斤糧食(其中還不包括數萬馬匹的巨大消耗,以及后方保障的百萬民夫自身的消耗),這樣的戰場后方供應在當時生產力水平下絕難實現。

        其次,作戰雙方用兵方略和戰術上存在疑點。以《史記》描述,當趙括率50萬趙軍迎敵之時,白起敢于僅用2.5萬人去堵截趙軍撤退,以5千騎分割穿插趙軍中路。以冷兵器時代作戰原則而言,這樣的兵力運用無異于以卵擊石。而且,在當時,趙軍一旦投降就意味著被斬首(按秦律,士兵只有斬首敵軍才能獲得爵位,因此秦軍勇于殺敵,不尚受降)。40萬“燕趙慷慨悲歌之士”在主帥趙括英勇戰死的情況下投降的可能性很小。

        再次,作戰結果和現代考古學之間存在疑點。今天的考古發現證明,埋藏于長平古戰場上的尸體大多是在身著甲衣、手持武器狀態下被埋藏于地下,可以證實是“戰死”而非“坑殺”,且數量僅有數百上千人,絕無“四十萬”之多。長平之戰無疑是一場帶有文學描述和充滿“豐富想象”之戰。

        兩千多年前的一個著名軍事戰例,如果不能回歸它的原始形態,就很有可能會使今天的軍事指揮員形成“理想化”“簡單化”和“程式化”的思維模式:比如一旦我們相信白起竟然敢以5千兵力在局促的戰場空間去穿插分割45萬趙軍,以2.5萬兵力去阻斷40余萬趙軍退路,這樣的與任何作戰原則都相去甚遠的兵力運用和作戰指導,有可能誤導今天的軍事指揮員定下錯誤的“作戰決心”;比如《史記》有意神話“戰神”白起的作用,而忽略了秦國最高統帥秦昭王的堅強決心和選將用將之明,忽略了秦軍“銳卒”在“軍功爵位”制度激勵下的戰斗作風,忽略了以重裝步兵為主的秦軍更適應在多山的上黨地區作戰,更忽略了秦軍擁有關中和巴蜀兩大糧倉,擁有更加高效的后勤運輸(包括水運)系統和人力資源,這樣的結果容易導致未來的戰爭實踐中陷入“押寶于名將”而忽略了軍力的長遠建設和周密的戰爭準備;比如把趙國的失敗單純歸結于“紙上談兵”的趙括而罔顧趙軍步兵作戰能力的低下以及趙國君主在關鍵時刻受到反間計、臨陣換帥、干預前軍指揮的用人之失和錯誤戰略指導,容易使后人陷入歷史認知過于“簡單化”的窠臼。www.bjzhmgsls.com

        對照其他各類史料發現,趙軍主帥趙括其實并非如《史記》所言的只會“紙上談兵”,他在長平之戰中選擇主動出擊其實基于三個方面的“無奈”:一是趙軍糧餉不足、后勤供應中斷,必須采取速戰速決之策,不主動出擊便是死路一條;二是趙軍最高統帥趙王急于與秦軍決戰,不惜為此臨陣換將,且換趙括為帥的目的就是盡快與秦軍決戰;三是廉頗在戰爭前期屢戰屢敗,當轉為守勢時趙軍又不善于“堅壁”(趙軍自趙武靈王時期建立了長于主動進攻的強大騎兵,但在善于防守和山區作戰的重裝步兵建設方面卻落后于秦國),因此軍心士氣低落。

        回望長平之戰,趙軍在軍事上的最終失利,根本原因還是趙國的綜合國力和軍事實力遠遠落后于泰國。無論是趙王的戰略指導,還是之前廉頗的屢戰屢敗;無論是秦國的反間計,還是趙括的錯誤作戰指導,其背后都根源于綜合國力的強弱對比和軍事力量的優劣異勢。秦國在商鞅變法后,歷數代有為之君的長期經營和艱苦征戰,統一天下的國家意志已經堅如磐石,舉國動員的戰爭機器和軍事體制已非趙國等其他六國所可抵抗。這段歷史運行的最終結果深刻啟示我們:只有建立在強大綜合國力之上的國家意志才是無堅不摧、所向披靡的。

        事實上,作為儒家文化的繼承者和傳播者,《史記》作者司馬遷對把“法治”作為立國精神的秦國一向持強烈的“文化對立”立場,所以在著史時有意識通過“長平之戰”的夸大其詞來強化后世對秦國的“殘暴”和“惡政”印象,并為繼之而起的大漢王朝“背書”。另據考,司馬遷六世祖司馬靳曾作為白起副將參與長平之戰,后因秦王猜忌白起而和白起一起被賜死,國仇家恨集于一身,司馬公又怎能不添油加醋以抹黑秦軍“暴行”?因而,深入研究諸如“長平之戰”一樣的所有被歷史煙云掩蓋的著名戰例,正是現代軍人科學引鑒歷史、汲取古人智慧、探索未來制勝之道的重要使命之一。

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