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      當前位置:悠悠千古事 > 戰史風云 > 發生在3000多年前的牧野之戰可信么?

      發生在3000多年前的牧野之戰可信么?

      發布時間:2017-11-16  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

        根據《史記》、《逸周書·克殷》、《逸周書·世俘》、《尚書·武成篇》史書記載,周武王伐商,集結各諸侯的軍隊向朝歌進發,而商紂王在甲子日才發覺周軍來攻,由于商軍主力在東方征伐東夷,國都空虛,只得臨時武裝奴隸,加上國都的少數守軍,一共出動70萬開赴距離朝歌70里外的牧野去迎擊周軍。由于殷商奴隸對商紂王非常痛恨,全部倒戈,商朝軍隊頓時崩潰,周軍陣斬商軍18萬人,生俘33萬人,“血流漂杵”。甲子日黃昏,周軍就攻入朝歌,商紂王自殺,商朝滅亡。

        其一,以商朝這個時代的生產力和人口,僅朝歌一城的奴隸是否可能有70萬那么多,就非常值得可疑。

        根據甲骨文的記載,戰俘絕大多數都殺了作為人牲,極少量養起來轉化為奴隸(用于從事養馬、打獵之事,用于農業生產的則絕少)。而商朝殺人祭祀是件神圣的事,必須嚴格記錄在甲骨上,專家們統計了所有出土的十五萬片甲骨,發現累積人牲總數為13052人。250年中,商朝俘虜的大部分戰俘都用作人牲,總數也不過萬人,而少部分轉為奴隸的戰俘,在牧野之戰之時,僅在朝歌就達到70萬,簡直無法置信。

        

      發生在3000多年前的牧野之戰可信么?

       

        其二,從軍事角度來看,商紂王在1天之內臨時武裝動員70萬奴隸出發迎敵,這根本不可能。

        周軍來攻,對商紂王來說是駭不及防的突襲,事先毫無準備,也不可能進行事先的動員和準備。根據史書上的說法,商紂王臨時召集了在國都的70萬奴隸,從發布命令,召集70萬奴隸,并給他們發給兵器(奴隸是絕對不可能有隨身武器的,而史料記載奴隸們都倒戈相向,可見奴隸手中有武器,這些武器必然是商政府發放的),同時還必須進行必要的整編,集隊,基本號令訓練,這就不是一天兩天能辦好的,更何況還要加上70萬人從朝歌開赴70里外的牧野的時間。別說在殷商時期臨時動員奴隸,哪怕是現代,有預先制定國防動員計劃并每年進行演習訓練的國家,要動員70萬預備役人員參加戰斗并發給他們武器,將他們編入相應部隊并進行最基本的訓練,也不可能在1天內完成。

        其三,商軍半天行軍70里開赴戰場,周軍與商軍大戰后當天又驅馳70里在黃昏即攻占朝歌,兩軍在12小時內行軍140里,是絕對不可能的。

        

      發生在3000多年前的牧野之戰可信么?

       

        別說商朝時期的軍隊,就說淮海戰役中國民黨軍撤離徐州,是有準備的行動,30萬機械化部隊撤退,也弄得雞毛鴨血,混亂不堪。20世紀的號稱精銳的國民黨軍機械化部隊30萬人撤退尚且如此,3000年前臨時武裝的70萬奴隸,居然能井然有序地在半天內完成領取武器,集結開赴70里外的戰場的軍事行動,真是不可思議。

        解放前我解放軍的組織能力和行軍速度舉世知名,隨便舉3個最高速度的例子。最快的是1945年冬8團(后改番號為解放軍1軍1師1團)36小時趕360里從歸綏趕到包頭;其次是飛奪瀘定橋的1天240里;再次是華北清風店戰役,解放軍24小時趕了200里。先秦時期的臨時召集奴隸部隊,早上臨時召集,集結整隊,趕赴70里外戰場,與周軍大戰一場后,獲勝的周軍又行軍70里,在黃昏攻克朝歌。半天時間,商軍召集整隊開赴戰場,周軍戰勝并攻占朝歌。不算商軍的集結時間,兩軍交戰時間,光從早上到黃昏,一來一去這140里路就遠超解放軍的行軍速度,誰還敢信這個史料?

        比較完現代后,拿距離牧野之戰較近的歷史事實來比較:牧野之戰后幾百年的戰國前期,經濟最為繁榮的魏國,其精銳部隊“武卒”,半天能跑一百里,已經算頂尖部隊了。而商朝臨時征集的奴隸,半天時間中扣除召集、集結、整隊的時間,居然也能跑70里?孫子云:“是故卷甲而趨,日夜不處,倍道兼行,百里爭利,則擒三將軍,勁者先,疲者后,其法十一而至;五十里而爭利,則厥上將軍,其法半至,三十里而爭利,則三分之二至。”在先秦時期,一天跑100里都要有90%的部隊掉隊,半天跑70里居然臨時召集、對殷商滿心仇恨的奴隸能趕到戰場,還有“殷商之旅,其會如林”的陣容,也實在太扯了吧?

        其四,甲骨文記載中商朝軍隊最大一次軍事行動,發生在商朝武力最強盛的武丁時期,商王武丁和王后婦好各領一支軍隊對付北方的蠻族,也不過出動萬人,牧野之戰時,商軍主力全部在東夷作戰,居然還能通過武裝奴隸出動70萬軍隊,簡直是天方夜譚了。

        

      發生在3000多年前的牧野之戰可信么?

       

        在商朝最大一次軍事行動也只出動萬人的情況下,在商軍主力全在東夷作戰的情況下,商政府居然能在首都囤積70萬人能夠使用的兵器,簡直不可想象。一支萬人規模的軍隊,國家有可能為他預備70萬件武器嗎?而且當時商軍主力還在東夷,他們本身就攜帶了大量兵器。須知,在商朝,銅可是非常貴重的金屬,70萬件青銅兵器,就要有200噸青銅鑄造,這在當時簡直是個天文數字的財富,而且鑄造他們也需要大量人力物力。www.bjzhmgsls.com即使有這個物力、人力、財力,這些青銅不拿來鑄鼎之類重器,全用來鑄兵器玩?難道商紂王的祖宗預料到會有牧野之戰這一天,事先為他們的子孫準備了70萬件兵器?

        其五,史料中互相矛盾的地方非常多,在同一本《逸周書》中,一方面說70萬商軍大部倒戈,這樣周軍應該勝利得非常輕松,理應“兵不血刃”才是,怎么在同一本書中,又成了斬首18萬,生俘33萬,以至于還因此發明了一個成語“血流漂杵”呢?“血流漂杵”的結果,像是一場70萬奴隸倒戈的戰爭嗎?

        由此可見:歷史上許多記載看上去言之鑿鑿,其實仔細一推敲都明顯可見是偽造或夸張的,就好比長平之戰坑殺40萬趙軍,一較真謊言一戳就破。考古發現的才是硬史實,文獻記載只能算軟史實,不要盲信。

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