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      當前位置:悠悠千古事 > 戰史風云 > 反思:前秦滅亡原因

      反思:前秦滅亡原因

      發布時間:2017-07-17  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

        前秦的滅亡最令人惋惜,一個心向漢化雄才大略,又大度的君主在達到頂峰的時期居然分崩瓦解。真令人遺憾,我認為有三點原因是其致命的失誤。

        第一,在前秦后面的北魏時期,北魏曾經遭遇過饑荒,北魏皇帝準備讓百姓到河北進食,但被河北大族出身的崔浩所勸阻。他的理由之一就是如果大批流民進入河北,不但會擾亂當地治安,而且會令帝國的虛實為人所知,是十分危險的,北魏居太行山高處,居高臨下,一直令河北有敬畏之心。同理,前秦后期的把氐族人分別鎮壓中國各地,并把羌,慕容鮮卑等人遷入中原的做法無益于自掘墳墓。帝國虛實盡被潛在的敵人所熟知,再沒一點避諱。和唐一樣,前秦亡于自己的瓦解,而非外敵的毀滅。有人會說,清也是把八旗兵放在了各地,卻有200多年的國祚,這就涉及了第二和第三點--強有力的軍事實力維持和部落的解體。同時清的老家--東北一直保持了相對的閉塞。

        第二,前秦的軍事實力前期應該是氐族部落兵,中期應該為部落兵和漢族等民族混合,畢竟如果是單一部落兵,王猛很難指揮(鄧羌事件)得輕松。后期就是多民族混雜軍團了。氐族在五胡中也不算大的,在人數和質量上都不占優,尤其最后階段,并沒有得到中原最廣大的民族--漢族的支持。王猛畢竟出身平民,應該很難喚起世家大族的傾力支持,要知道,當時的漢族還是處于士族大閥的時代,前秦在肥水之戰后被漢族拋棄,亡于征服民族的內亂也就沒有辦法了,對征服民族的寬容也就造成了苻堅大帝的悲劇人生。

        第三,前秦后期的北魏有一個政策就是,解散部落,把部落里的人打散成國家的自然人,我覺得這才是一條釜底抽薪的良策,當部落的酋長失去號召力,民族什么的也自然被同化了。而前秦的由于對敵人的統治階級寬容,且同民族聚居的習俗沒有打亂,所以一旦出事,舊貴族可以很容易拉起自己就有的部落,來滿足自己的野心。這點與兵制也是相同的。

        最后,苻堅個人的問題,雄才大略也難逃志大才疏的結論。他雖然年少有為,但是要注意,他通過政變殺死符生的年齡只有20左右,然后前期得到王猛的輔助,垂拱于上,這就有可能造成過于理想化而與現實脫節。王猛是能臣,更是一個接近理想化的完美角色,這多少會對苻堅的成長有影響。至于救了慕容垂,只能見仁見智了。慕容垂這種也是雙面帶刃的寶刀全看怎么用。但看自從羌族也反之后,即使慕容垂不干涉苻丕,恐怕前秦也無濟于事。

        歷史和政治家的無恥,在前秦的滅亡上,盡顯無遺,徒留后人評判!

        以上就是關于“反思:前秦滅亡原因”的故事,喜歡的朋友請繼續關注悠悠千古事,歡迎留言評論。


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