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      淝水之戰大勝謝安忍住狂喜,淡定下棋

      發布時間:2017-07-14  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

        電視劇《北平無戰事》里,有一段情節:方步亭的妻子小云得知方孟敖在一次戰斗中擊落三架敵機后,給方步亭講了《世說新語》中的一則故事——東晉宰相謝安,接到淝水之戰的捷報后,內心狂喜,表面卻不露聲色,鎮靜自如繼續下棋。當時的謝安身在建康,也就是今天的南京。

        公元383年,前秦苻堅率領號稱百萬之眾南下,攻打東晉。此前,東晉軍隊連連戰敗,得知前秦軍逼近淝水后,建康城里更是一片惶恐,可謝安依舊鎮靜自如。他以征討大都督的身份負責軍事,并派出弟弟謝石、侄子謝玄等率兵八萬前去抵御。

        這一戰,史稱“淝水之戰”。開戰之時,前秦的兵力是東晉的十倍多,晉軍必敗幾無懸念。然而,坐鎮建康的謝安似乎并無擔憂。《世說新語·雅量》記載,東晉將士們在前線鏖戰之時,謝安卻怡然自得與客人下著圍棋。棋局進行中,從前線派來的信使到了。謝安接過信看完,什么話也不說,繼續下棋。客人詢問謝安,前線戰事究竟如何?謝安回答:“小兒輩大破賊。”他的神態舉止,和平時沒有任何區別。

        史書記載,淝水之戰,晉軍在戰場上實現大逆轉。苻堅損兵折將,自己也身中利箭,孤身北返。苻堅兵敗后,前秦國內陷入混亂,兩年后,苻堅也被人殺害。

        淝水之戰,是謝安一手策劃導演的神奇之戰,是中國歷史上著名的以少勝多的經典案例。《世說新語》的記載,極力突出謝安的雅量,把他描繪成一位有著驚人定力且喜怒不形于色的人物。這段事跡,《晉書卷七十九》的記載,前面部分和《世說新語》大同小異,結尾處則展露了謝安的另一面:“既罷,還內,過戶限,心喜甚,不覺屐齒之折,其矯情鎮物如此。”意思是說,謝安下完圍棋,回到里屋。由于內心激動,他走路磕絆,木屐上的齒子碰掉了,也沒有發覺。宋代的李燾在其《六朝通鑒博議》書中,點評謝安“鎮之以安,謀之以靜”,并認為謝安的強作鎮靜,其實是在激發身邊人的勇氣,因為“兵畏敵者敗,輕敵者勝”。

        在山林中長嘯一曲,或者暢飲醉臥,或許,這才是謝安在淝水之戰捷報傳來時真正想做的事情。

        以上就是關于“淝水之戰大勝謝安忍住狂喜,淡定下棋”的故事,喜歡的朋友請繼續關注悠悠千古事,歡迎留言評論。

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