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      悠悠千古事 | 我要投稿

      當前位置:悠悠千古事 > 戰史風云 > 一鼓作氣,再而衰,三而竭

      一鼓作氣,再而衰,三而竭

      發布時間:2017-07-13  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

        曹劌以出色的才智幫助弱小的魯國在長勺打敗了強大的齊國,為后世留下了“一鼓作氣,再而衰,三而竭”的真知灼見。對此曹劌做了這樣的解釋“作戰是靠勇氣的。第一次擊鼓振作了勇氣,第二次擊鼓勇氣低落,第三次擊鼓勇氣就枯竭了。他們的勇氣消失了,我軍的勇氣正旺盛,所以戰勝了!

        原文

        十年春,齊師伐我。公將戰。曹劌請見。其鄉人曰:“肉食者謀之,又何間焉?”劌曰:“肉食者鄙,未能遠謀。”乃入見。問:“何以戰?”公曰:“衣食所安,弗敢專也,必以分人。”對曰:“小惠未徧,民弗從也。”公曰:“犧牲玉帛,弗敢加也,必以信。”對曰:“小信未孚,神弗福也。”公曰:“小大之獄,雖不能察,必以情。”對曰:“忠之屬也。可以一戰。戰則請從。”

        公與之乘。戰于長勺。公將鼓之。劌曰:“未可。”齊人三鼓。劌曰:“可矣。”齊師敗績。公將馳之。劌曰:“未可。”下視其轍,登軾而望之,曰:“可矣。”遂逐齊師。

        既克,公問其故。對曰:“夫戰,勇氣也。一鼓作氣,再而衰,三而竭。彼竭我盈,故克之,夫大國,難測也,懼有伏焉。吾視其轍亂,望其旗靡,故逐之。”

        譯文

        魯莊公十年春天,齊國軍隊攻打魯國。魯莊公準備應戰。曹劌請求拜見。他的同鄉說:“都是得高官厚祿的人在商量這事,你又為什么要參與呢?”曹劌說:“有權勢的人目光短淺,缺少見識,不能深謀遠慮。”于是上朝去拜見魯莊公。曹劌問:“您憑什么應戰呢?”莊公說 :“衣服、食品這些養生的東西,我不敢獨自專有,一定拿它來分給一些臣子。”曹劌回答說:“小恩小惠沒有遍及于老百姓,老百姓是不會聽從的。”莊公說:“用來祭祀的牛、羊、豬、玉器和絲織品,我不敢虛報,一定憑著一片至誠,告訴神。”曹劌回答說:“這點兒小誠意,不能被神信任,神不會賜福的。”莊公說:“輕重不同的案件,我即使不善于明察詳審,一定依據實情處理。”曹劌回答說:“這是盡了本職的一類事情。可以憑借這個條件打一仗。要打仗,請允許我跟隨著去。”

        莊公同他共坐一輛戰車。魯國齊國的軍隊在長勺作戰。莊公打算擊鼓命令進軍。曹劌說:“不行。”齊國軍隊敲了三次鼓。曹劌說:“可以進攻了。”齊國的軍隊大敗。莊公準備驅車追去。曹劌說:“不行。”于是向下觀察齊軍車輪留下的痕跡,又登上車前的橫木了望齊軍,說:“可以了。”就追擊齊國軍隊。

        戰勝了齊國軍隊后,莊公問這樣做的原因。曹劌回答說:“作戰是靠勇氣的。第一次擊鼓能振作士兵們的勇氣,第二次擊鼓可以使士兵們的勇氣低落,第三次擊鼓士兵們的勇氣就消失了。他們的勇氣消失了,我軍的勇氣正旺盛,所以戰勝了他們。大國,是不容易估計的,怕有伏兵在那里。我看見他們的車輪痕跡混亂了,望見他們的旗幟倒下了,所以才去追擊齊軍。”

        解釋

        第一次擊鼓士氣會大大增加,第二次擊鼓士氣就會減弱了,第三次擊鼓就沒有士氣了。主要說的就是氣勢最初時最旺盛的道理。做事要一氣呵成,還要有信心和毅力,如果接二連三的斷斷續續,會給你造成負面影響的。

        單字釋義:①竭:即為衰竭。②衰:減弱,衰弱,衰減。

        成語釋義:“一鼓作氣”中的“鼓”指敲戰鼓;“作”振作;“氣”勇氣。在原文中它是指作戰時第一次敲鼓最能激起士兵們的銳氣,多敲幾次鼓銳氣也就慢慢減弱了。如今我們經常用這個成語故事中的“一鼓作氣”來形容做事時要鼓起勁頭,勇往直前。

        出處

        《一鼓作氣,再而衰,三而竭》選自《春秋左傳·曹劌論戰》

        《左傳》是儒家經典之一,與《公羊傳》、《谷梁傳》合稱“《春秋》三傳”。《公羊傳》、《谷梁傳》是從政治和思想方面去解釋《春秋》,而《左傳》則從豐富的歷史材料去詮釋《春秋》。唐劉知幾《史通》評論《左傳》時說:“其言簡而要,其事詳而博。”對研究春秋史和遠古史提供了珍貴的史料。

        《左傳》敘事敢于直書不諱,揭示事情的真實面貌,全書有關戰爭的文字較多,這些文字翔實生動,如晉楚城濮之戰、秦晉郩之戰、齊晉鞌之戰、晉楚鄢陵之戰,都有出色的敘述。善于敘事,講究謀篇布局,章法嚴謹,都是《左傳》的獨到之處。正因為如此,它在中國文學史上也占有重要的地位。

        歷代注釋《左傳》的著作頗多,西晉大學者杜預撰《春秋經傳集解》,把《春秋》與《左傳》合為一編。唐孔穎達遵循杜預注而為疏,成為歷史上最有影響的注釋之作。清洪亮吉撰《春秋左傳詁》、劉文淇撰《春秋左傳舊注疏證》、今人楊伯峻撰《春秋左傳注》,都是比較重要的注本。

        《左傳》相傳是春秋末期的魯國史官左丘明所著。司馬遷首先認為《左傳》是左丘明所寫,自劉向、裴骃、劉歆、桓譚、班固皆以《左傳》出于左丘明。唐朝的劉知幾《史通·六家》亦稱:“左傳家者,其先出于左丘明。”

        以上就是關于“一鼓作氣,再而衰,三而竭”的故事,喜歡的朋友請繼續關注悠悠千古事,歡迎留言評論。

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