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      當前位置:悠悠千古事 > 戰史風云 > 赤壁之戰曹操失敗的原因

      赤壁之戰曹操失敗的原因

      發布時間:2017-06-28  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

        赤壁之戰的失利使曹操失去了在短時間內統一全國的可能性,如此重要的戰役曹操失敗了,那么是什么原因導致曹操失敗的呢?

        曹操的失誤:

        1、馬超、韓遂尚在關西,為操后患。關西軍一直是曹操的威脅。

        2、且舍鞍馬,仗舟楫,與吳越爭衡,本非中國所長;曹操也明白這個道理,他希望的是用荊州水軍對抗吳軍,可惜他錯了,赤壁之戰前那場接觸戰證明了一切。所以曹操才會索戰船,只不過正是因為這樣才被敵人火攻。說到底還是水軍不濟造成的。張遼在庾信的《哀江南賦》中提到:“張遼臨于赤壁,王濬下于巴丘”。曹操的主力部隊悉數開赴赤壁了。他希望以荊州水軍為主力,進而利用絕對的兵力優勢渡江,只是他高估了荊州水軍,低估了吳軍和長江。

        3、又今盛寒,馬無藁草;《三國志·孫權傳》記載:公燒其馀船引退,士卒饑疫,死者大半。可見戰馬沒有草料,人也好不到哪去,饑餓與瘟疫是困擾曹軍的兩大難題。這樣的部隊即使數量多也很難取勝。

        4、驅中國士眾遠涉江湖之間,不習水土,必生疾病。《三國志·曹操傳》:公至赤壁,與備戰,不利。於是大疫,吏士多死者,乃引軍還。備遂有荊州、江南諸郡。

        李友松的《曹操兵敗赤壁與血吸蟲病關系之探討》一文,指出曹操赤壁之戰兵敗的原因是“疾病”—急性血吸蟲病。赤壁之戰的戰場恰恰是當時血吸蟲病嚴重流行的地區,而且時間又是血吸蟲病的感染季節。赤壁之戰是在冬天開始的,但曹軍在轉徙、訓練時間是在秋天。曹操水軍在赤壁之戰戰前染上血吸蟲病,經過一個月以上的時間就發病了,致使大戰時疲病交加,不堪一擊。而劉、孫軍隊長期在血吸蟲流行的疫區中從事生產、生活,士兵體內或多或少已產生一定的免疫力。但是這個觀點也有缺陷,曹操水軍主要來自荊州水軍,這些士兵對血吸蟲的免疫力應跟孫劉聯軍應該差別不大,所以該是其他疫病。

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