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      當前位置:悠悠千古事 > 戰史風云 > 為何城濮之戰能成為歷史中的重要戰役?

      為何城濮之戰能成為歷史中的重要戰役?

      發布時間:2017-06-19  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

        城濮之戰,算得上是春秋時期的重要戰事之一,為何城濮之戰這么重要?歷史上大大小小戰役無數,城濮之戰能作為重要戰役,榜上有名,必定有它的原因,下面我們看看為何城濮之戰能成為歷史中的重要戰役?

        城濮之戰(前632年,四月初四,楚軍和晉軍在城濮(今山東鄄城西南)交戰)是繼齊、楚召陵之盟和宋、楚泓之戰以后,晉國與楚國之間的一場大戰,在春秋歷史上具有重大意義。它扼制了楚國的北進勢頭,穩定了中原形勢,奠定了晉國的霸主地位。

        當時,楚國可以說是勢力強盛、聲威方張。晉國自文公即位以來,對內整頓內政,發展經濟,壯大軍旅,對外尊崇王室,聯絡齊、秦,以與楚國針鋒相對,爭奪中原霸權。晉、楚之戰勢在難免。這是城濮之戰的根本原因。

        城濮之戰開始前,楚成王深知楚軍戰線過長,后方空虛,加之現在雙方力量的對比已經發生了變化,決定撤兵,自率部分楚軍退至申(今河南南陽北),以防秦軍襲其后方。但統帥子玉剛愎自用,不聽成王知難而退的告誡,堅決不撤宋圍。成王亦存僥幸取勝心理,又給子玉補充了少量兵力。子玉為尋找借口與晉決戰,提出晉要曹、衛復國才解宋圍的要求。晉文公不好公開拒絕,遂將計就計,私下答應曹、衛復國,但必須以與楚斷交為條件,同時扣留楚國使者,以激怒子玉北上決戰。果然,子玉忿而北上,棄宋直撲曹都陶丘(今山東定陶東北)的晉軍駐地。晉文公下令全軍“退避三舍”(一舍30里),以答謝自己過去流亡楚國時受到的禮遇和當時許下的諾言。這樣既可以避開楚軍鋒芒,又可靠攏齊、秦軍隊,便于聲援。

        城濮之戰中,子玉以為晉軍畏懼,率軍追至城濮。兩軍對壘,晉軍分上、中、下三軍部署:上軍在右,下軍在左,中軍居中,先軫及晉文公坐鎮中軍指揮。楚聯軍亦按左、中、右三軍配置:陳、蔡軍編為右軍,實力較弱;一部楚軍編為左軍,戰斗力較強;中軍為楚軍精銳,由子玉指揮。二十一年四月初二,決戰開始。晉下軍把駕車的馬蒙上虎皮,首先向楚右軍發起猛攻,陳、蔡軍一觸即潰,全軍瓦解。這時,晉上軍豎起兩面大旗,并在陣后揚起塵土,佯裝后退。子玉不察虛實,下令左軍追擊。待其突出之時,晉元帥先軫指揮中軍向其暴露翼側攻擊,斷其退路,晉上軍亦回頭夾擊。楚左軍大部被殲。子玉見兩翼均敗,大勢已去,急忙下令收兵,退回楚地。城濮一戰終以晉勝楚敗而告終。戰后,晉文公被周襄王策命為侯伯,一躍成為中原霸主。

        之前,楚國的勢力差不多已經蹂躪了整個中原,黃河下游的大國,如齊如宋都被楚所侵略,魯、衛、鄭、陳、蔡等國都已投降了楚人。一面狄兵也曾攻入王畿,逼得周天子蒙塵。……城濮一戰,楚軍敗績,南夷的勢力即退出了中原,北狄的勢力也漸漸衰微下去,于是華夏國家和文化的生命才能維持。

        以上就是關于“為何城濮之戰能成為歷史中的重要戰役?”的故事,喜歡的朋友請繼續關注悠悠千古事,歡迎留言評論。

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