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      毛澤東是怎樣看待長勺之戰?

      發布時間:2017-06-12  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

        公元前684年,魯國和齊國在長勺發生了一次戰爭,史稱長勺之戰。發生這次戰爭的原因還要追溯到兩年之前。公元前686年,齊國的公孫無知殺死了 國君齊襄公,自立為君。這個齊襄公無道,他的兩個弟弟預感齊國將會有亂,分別逃到他國,公子糾逃到了魯國,公子小白逃到了莒國。第二年,齊國人殺死了公孫無知,準備另立新君。這時候,魯莊公想送公子糾回國為齊君,但避難莒國的公子小白卻先一步回到齊國繼承了君位,這就是齊桓公。魯莊公并不甘心,他親率大軍打算強送公子糾返國為君。齊桓公和輔佐他的鮑叔牙研究決定:以兵據之。雙方大軍在齊國的干時相遇,魯國被齊國打敗。齊國借著勝利向魯國施加壓力,逼迫魯國殺死了公子糾。但是,齊桓公并沒有解恨,他仍然對魯國要護送公子糾對齊國興兵耿耿于懷,于是在繼位第二年率軍攻打魯國,進行報復。

        齊桓公自恃強大,企圖一舉征服魯國,從而震懾諸侯,向外擴張勢力。戰爭就是在這種情況下發生的。左傳是這樣記載這件事的:

        魯莊公十年春天,齊國的軍隊攻打魯國。魯莊公準備迎戰,曹劌請求進見。有的人勸他說:“那些吃肉的人會謀劃的,你又何必參與其中呢!”曹劌說:“吃肉的人庸碌無能,不能夠深謀遠慮。”于是進宮拜見。

        曹劌問莊公:“君主準備依靠什么來作戰?”莊公說:“暖衣飽食,不敢獨自享受,一定分給別人。”曹劌說:“小恩小惠不能分給所有人,百姓不會跟從的。”莊公說:“祭祀用的牛羊玉帛,不敢擅自超過規定,一定如實相告。”曹劌說:“這種小信用也不能使鬼神信服,鬼神也不會降福的。”莊公又說:“大大小小的案件,雖然不能完全洞察,但必定合情合理去辦理。”曹劌回答說:“這是為百姓盡力,可以憑著這個一戰。交戰的時候,我請求跟從您去。”魯莊公和曹劌同乘一輛戰車,與齊國軍隊在長勺交戰。

        戰斗打響了,魯莊公準備擊鼓,曹劌說:“還不行。”齊國人連續擊鼓三次,第三次結束,曹劌說:“可以了。”齊軍大敗。莊公準備驅車追擊,曹劌說:“還不行。”曹劌從車上下來,仔細查看了齊軍的車轍,然后又登上車前橫木遠望,說:“行了。”于是魯軍追擊齊軍。

        戰斗勝利后,魯莊公問戰斗勝利的原因。曹劌回答說:“作戰靠的是勇氣。第一通鼓,士兵的勇氣會很振奮;第二通鼓,勇氣就會少一些;第三通鼓,勇氣基本上就沒有了。他們的勇氣沒有了,而我們的勇氣正在振奮的時候,所以我們取得了勝利。不過,大國是難以捉摸的,恐怕他們有埋伏。我仔細地看了一下,他們的車轍已經亂了,遠遠地看到他們的旗子已經倒下,(這是真正的失敗逃跑),所以才追擊他們”。

        這次戰爭因為發生在長勺(今山地萊蕪東北)地區,人們稱之為“長勺之戰”;又因為重點描寫了曹劌對于戰爭進行的條件、軍隊士氣的盛衰、軍隊敗退真偽判斷的論述,因此又被稱之為《曹劌論戰》。

        毛澤東是偉大的軍事家,他是怎樣看待這次戰爭的呢?

        一、給了它最高規格的“待遇”。

        毛澤東是在《中國革命戰爭的戰略問題》一書中引用這段文字的。發生在莊公十年的這場戰爭,該書做了全文引用,這在毛澤東的著作中是比較少見的。除了一些專門的解析、評述類文章,恐怕這種現象在其他人的文章中也是比較少見,所以說,這是一種最高規格的“待遇”。同時,他還把這次戰爭作為一個典范,楚漢成皋之戰、新漢昆陽之戰、袁曹官渡之戰、吳魏赤壁之戰、吳蜀夷陵之戰、秦晉淝水之戰都是符合這個典范的戰例。

        二、這是一種“戰略退卻”,是一種積極戰略防御中的戰略退卻。

        該文出現在上書的第五章《戰略防御》的第三節當中,本節專門講的是“戰略退卻”。積極的戰略防御,是“為了保存軍力,待機破敵,而采取的一個有計劃的戰略步驟”,是避免軍事冒險主義的有效途徑。在這里,他把戰爭的雙方比作是兩個放對的拳師,“聰明的拳師往往是退后一步,而蠢人則氣勢洶洶,劈頭就使出全幅本領,結果卻往往被退讓者打倒。”緊接著,他拿《水滸傳》中的林沖和洪教頭做了注腳,說:“結果是退讓的林沖看出洪教頭的破綻,一腳踢翻了洪教頭。”這就是說,有計劃的戰略退卻是一種積極防御,避其鋒芒,既不是冒險主義的“御敵于國門之外”,也不是失敗主義的回避逃跑。它只是“退讓一步”,然后抓住有利時機進行反攻。

        在這次戰爭中,魯莊公是沒有“退卻一步”這個打算的,齊人擂鼓,他也準備擊鼓(公將鼓之),結果讓善于掌握“時機”的曹劌制止了。等到“彼竭我盈之時”,曹劌才建議魯莊公擊鼓攻擊齊軍。

        在毛澤東看來,長勺之戰“是一個不大的戰役,卻同時是說的戰略防御原則”。

        三、以弱勝強的典范

        在毛澤東看來,這是一個典型的“以弱勝強”的“有名的戰例”。書中寫到:“當時的情況是弱國抵抗強國”。上述所列“有名的大戰,都是雙方強弱不同”。由于“雙方強弱不同,弱者先讓一步,后發制人,因而戰勝”了強大的敵人。

        實際情況正是這樣,齊強魯弱。齊國是姜子牙建立的國家,由于他采取了一系列發展經濟和親民政策,齊國很快就富強起來,周天子也授予他征伐之權。后來,齊桓公能夠稱霸諸侯,雖然說是由于管仲大力推行改革,但齊國的基礎好也是一個必不可少的條件。一年前,齊桓公剛剛即位,屁股還沒有坐穩,魯國就想用軍隊強行護送公子糾回齊國為國君。在這種情況下,干時之戰,齊國照樣打敗了魯國。可以說,齊國軍隊根本就看不起魯國軍隊。曹劌的“三而竭”理論,也是建立在這個基礎之上的,那就是本來就弱,然后進一步示弱。www.bjzhmgsls.com

        這種以弱勝強的戰例很多,長勺之戰能夠得到毛澤東的重視及給予高度的評價,的確有其獨特之處。

        四、紅軍時期的“十六字訣”和此戰有相通之處。

        紅軍時期有一個游擊戰爭的“十六字訣”,這就是“敵進我退,敵駐我擾、敵疲我打、敵退我追”。毛澤東把曹劌的“三鼓論”看做是“十六字訣”當中的“敵疲我打”。他說:“魯莊公起初不待齊軍疲憊就要出戰,后來被曹劌阻止了,采取了‘敵疲我打’的方針,打勝了齊軍。”紅軍初期的軍事原則就是這個“十六字訣”,它包舉了反“圍剿”的基本原則。紅軍時期從井岡山到中央蘇區,就是毛澤東在領導指揮,這“十六字訣”也充分體現了毛澤東初期的游擊戰爭基本思想,他能把“敵疲我打”和《曹劌論戰》聯系在一起,可見這篇文章對他的影響是多深。

        長勺之戰是一次不大的戰役,《史記》當中沒有記載這次戰事。《中國革命戰爭的戰略問題》是為了總結第二次國內戰爭而寫的,是毛澤東重要的軍事著作,為什么這樣一次不大的戰役會引起毛澤東高度的重視呢?如果我們反復揣摩一下全文,看看它那無窮的魅力,也就不覺得奇怪了。

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