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      當前位置:悠悠千古事 > 戰史風云 > 涿鹿之戰的戰爭過程_涿鹿之戰全過程

      涿鹿之戰的戰爭過程_涿鹿之戰全過程

      發布時間:2016-08-30  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

        涿(zhuō)鹿之戰,是說距今大約5000余年前,黃帝部族聯合炎帝部族,跟來自南方的蚩尤部族在今河北省張家口市涿鹿縣一帶所進行的一場大戰。“戰爭”的目的,是雙方為了爭奪適于牧放和淺耕的中原地帶。涿鹿之戰對于古代華夏族由野蠻時代向文明時代的轉變產生過重大的影響。

        涿鹿之戰的戰爭過程

        繁榮昌盛、有81個氏族的九黎諸部落在蚩尤率領下西向進入華夏集團分布地區,目標也可能是豫中,因為首當其沖的是居于豫東的炎帝,相傳他都于陳(今河南淮陽)。蚩尤率領的部落聯盟由于生產力水平較華夏集團略高一籌,武器制作精良又勇猛善戰,于是所向披靡,因而留下“銅頭鐵額”、“威震天下”的英名。炎帝部落無法抵擋、節節敗退,在蚩尤大軍的掃蕩下,居地全失,連一個角落也沒留下,本著同一聯合體應互相救助的原則,炎帝求救于黃帝,引發了涿鹿之戰。涿鹿之戰的戰場在何處,至今仍未有定論,《逸周書》所謂“中冀”,或為冀州中部,大體約在靠近今冀魯豫三省接界地帶的河北境內。

        涿鹿之戰不同于阪泉之戰,它是在兩個部族集團之間進行的,因而打得分外激烈,留下很多神話傳說,如說黃帝與蚩尤九戰九不勝,蚩尤作大霧彌漫三天三夜,黃帝之臣風后在北斗星座的啟示下,發明了指南車,才沖出大霧。還傳說黃帝在困境中得到玄女的幫助,制作了80面夔皮鼓,夔是東海中的神獸,“狀如牛,蒼身而無角”,“入水則必風雨,其光如日月,其聲如雷”,黃帝用其皮蒙鼓,用雷獸之骨作鼓槌,“聲聞五百里,以威天下”。

        黃帝與蚩尤的戰爭延續了不少時日,最后的決戰進行于冀州之野,《山海經·大荒北經》記述了一個傳說,“有人衣青衣,名曰黃帝女魃。蚩尤作兵伐黃帝,黃帝乃令應龍攻之冀州之野。應龍畜水,蚩尤請風伯雨師,縱大風雨。黃帝乃下天女曰魃,雨止,遂殺蚩尤。魃不得復上,所居不雨”。反映戰斗過程中,雙方先由巫師作法,希望借助自然力征服對方,黃帝呼喚有翼的應龍畜水,以便淹沒蚩尤軍隊,蚩尤也請風伯、雨師相助,一時風雨大作,黃帝軍隊再次陷入困境,危急中,黃帝只得請下天女旱魃阻止風雨,天氣突然晴霽,蚩尤軍隊驚詫萬分,黃帝乘機指揮大軍掩殺過去,取得了最后勝利。

        黃帝的勝利得來不易,而勝利以后,又遇到很多新的困難,不僅旱神女魃制止了大風雨后神力大減,“不得復上”,應龍參戰以后,也“不得復上”,天上“無復作雨者”,使地上連續大旱數年。

        近代環境考古告訴我們,距今5000至4000年左右是自然環境又一次大變化時期,不斷升高的氣溫,持續不斷的冰川融化與降雨均驟然停止。距今5000年前后,從遼東半島到長江三角洲都留下海退的遺跡,以后,距今4700年開始又發生了小的波動。涿鹿之戰中,那些被巫術呼喚來的暴風雨及其后的干旱,正與氣候由平穩到發生波動的情況相合,可見這些神話不是全無根據的,它確實濃縮了對過去的回憶。

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