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      涿鹿之戰的戰爭背景

      發布時間:2016-08-30  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

        涿(zhuō)鹿之戰,是說距今大約5000余年前,黃帝部族聯合炎帝部族,跟來自南方的蚩尤部族在今河北省張家口市涿鹿縣一帶所進行的一場大戰。“戰爭”的目的,是雙方為了爭奪適于牧放和淺耕的中原地帶。涿鹿之戰對于古代華夏族由野蠻時代向文明時代的轉變產生過重大的影響。

        阪泉之戰以后,《史記·五帝本紀》記載:“蚩尤作亂,不用帝命,于是黃帝乃征師諸侯,與蚩尤戰于涿鹿之野。”

        關于涿鹿之戰的記載較阪泉之戰豐富得多,其中時代最早的是《列子·黃帝》記載:“黃帝與炎帝戰于阪泉之野,帥熊、羆、狼、豹、貙、虎為前驅,雕、鹖、鷹、鳶為旗幟,此以力使禽獸者也”。這十者均為十大部族圖騰神獸,這十大部族曾為軒轅黃帝(有熊氏)在阪泉之戰歷下大功,并且是中國最早的馴獸與獸類參戰的記載。以及《逸周書·嘗麥》:“昔天之初,誕作二后,乃設建典,命赤帝分正二卿,命蚩尤宇于少昊,以臨四方,……蚩尤乃逐帝,爭于涿鹿之阿,九隅無遺。赤帝大懾,乃說于黃帝,執蚩尤,殺之于中冀,以甲兵釋怒,用大正順天思序,紀于大帝,用名之曰絕轡之野。乃命少昊清司馬鳥師,以正五帝之官,故名曰質。天用大成,至于今不亂”。

        《逸周書》關于涿鹿之戰的追述,雖然摻進了后人的思想和理解,仍是研究涿鹿之戰難得的重要歷史文獻,由這段記載可知,戰爭起于蚩尤西向侵掠,炎帝大敗,疆土全無,轉向黃帝求助,引起黃帝、蚩尤的涿鹿之戰。

        相傳蚩尤是九黎之君,九黎即九夷,屬東夷集團。還傳說“蚩尤兄弟八十一人,并獸身人語,銅頭鐵額,食沙石子,造立兵杖、刀、戟、大弩,威震天下”、“蚩尤作冶”、“以金作兵”,可見蚩尤是九個親屬部落結成的部落聯盟的首領,他們勇武善戰,武器裝備也比較先進,這些傳說反映了真實歷史的影子,今已從考古學中得到證明。

        蚩尤“宇于少昊”,說明其發祥地在今山東曲阜,這一地區史前時代屬于大汶口文化和龍山文化分布區。從距今6000多年前開始獲得迅速發展,到距今5000年前后的大汶口文化晚期,不僅作為社會經濟基礎的原始農業、家畜飼養有了長足的進步,各種手工業部門一無論是石器還是骨角牙器制作,其工藝水平都日漸超過了同期的中原,制陶業更逐步走向中華史前制陶的頂峰。在此基礎上鑄銅工藝萌芽,開始只能鑄造小型銅工具,稍晚的龍山文化時已有了青銅容器的鑄造,并逐漸取代了制陶業的尖端手工業的地位。

        隨著社會經濟、文化、技術的迅速發展和人口的增多,一支支大汶口文化的先民相繼西向發展,進入華夏集團居地去拓展新的生存空間,據研究得知,距今5000年前后,其部分居民已西遷進入豫中,直接發生接觸的影響所及直達豫西、豫南、蘇南等地,涿鹿之戰就是在這樣的歷史背景下展開的。

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