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      漠北之戰對漢朝與匈奴有什么影響?

      發布時間:2017-05-31  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

        漠北之戰,是西漢與匈奴戰爭中規模最大也最艱巨的一次作戰,是在草原地區進行的一次成功作戰。

        在中國古代戰爭史上占有重要地位。漢軍作戰指導明確,準備充分,漢武帝在取得漠南、河西兩大戰役的勝利的基礎上,根據漢軍經過實戰的鍛煉積累的運用騎兵集團進行長途奔襲與迂回包抄的作戰經驗,利用匈奴王廷北徒之后誤以為漢軍不敢深入漠北的麻痹心理,決定出其不意,攻其不備,大膽地制訂了遠途奔襲、深入漠北、犁廷掃穴、尋殲匈奴主力的戰略方針。

        與此同時,他又細心進行戰前的準備,除集中全國最精銳的騎兵和最優秀的戰將投入戰斗外,還調集大批馬匹與步兵,運送糧草輻重,以解決遠距離作戰的補給問題。在作戰中,漢軍統帥又發揮了出色的指揮才能,充分利用大騎兵集團快速、機動與沖擊力的特點,以優勢兵力,分路出擊,不僅敢于深入敵境,而且善于迂回包秒。

        特別是霍去病,能夠輕騎越大漠追殺敵人幾千里,對后勤的要求很少,用以戰養戰的方式全殲殘敵。所有這一切,都為漢軍的勝利提供了保障。漠北之戰最終以漢軍的全面勝利而告終。給予匈奴前所未有的打擊。經過這次大決戰,危害漢朝百余年的匈奴邊患已基本上得到解決。從這個意義上說,漠北之戰實是漢武帝反擊匈奴戰爭的最高峰。

        漠北之戰對漢朝的影響:

        漢朝為這次勝利付出了相當大的代價:漢朝軍隊損失了近80%的馬匹,這其中既包括戰斗損失,也包括非戰斗因素,如長途奔襲中的損耗,以及由于匈奴人在水源中投毒造成的瘟疫。

        漢朝中央政府在戰后為了彌補戰爭損失而增稅,加重了百姓的負擔。迫于重稅和徭役而逃亡,很多人成為流民,使官府直接掌握的編戶齊民大為減少。www.bjzhmgsls.com

        西漢漠北決戰的勝利,制止了匈奴奴隸主對漢邊境的殘暴掠奪,加速了我國北部地區的進一步統一和開發,具有深遠的歷史意義。

        漠北之戰對匈奴的影響:

        匈奴遭受了毀滅性的打擊。匈奴人在戰爭和瘟疫中損失了大量人力,與此同時,家畜的大量損失造成了食物的短缺。

        而影響更為深遠的是,由于失去了南部的大量肥沃草原,匈奴部落被迫北遷至貧瘠而寒冷的北部戈壁沙漠和西伯利亞地區,面對更大的生存壓力。因此,漢朝與匈奴之間的實質性停火只維持了短短七年,匈奴人就在前112年南下侵擾五原。而匈奴帝國在此戰后再也沒有恢復到往日的強大,數十年后就分裂為多個小部落。

        武帝戰勝匈奴,打通了到塔里木盆地及中亞的商路,匈奴控制的河西走廊歸屬于漢朝。從此,在從中原到中亞的絲綢之路上,西漢的外交使節和商人往來不斷,絲綢之路逐漸成為中西交流的一座橋梁。

        以上就是關于“漠北之戰對漢朝與匈奴有什么影響?”的故事,喜歡的朋友請繼續關注悠悠千古事,歡迎留言評論。


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