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      當前位置:悠悠千古事 > 戰史風云 > 垓下之戰全過程

      垓下之戰全過程

      發布時間:2017-05-24  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

        漢高帝五年(公元前202年)十二月,在楚漢戰爭中,楚漢兩軍在垓下(今安徽省靈璧縣東南沱河北岸)進行的一場戰略決戰。那么,在垓下之戰中,項羽是怎樣戰敗的呢?

        戰爭初期

        公元前202年(高祖五年)十月下旬,灌嬰引兵進占彭城,同時攻下楚地許多地區。被劉邦封為淮南王的英布也遣將進入九江地區,誘降了守將、楚大司馬周殷,隨后合軍北上進攻城父(今安徽渦陽東)。劉邦也由固陵東進,形勢對楚極為不利,項羽被迫向東南撤退。十一月,項羽退至垓下(今安徽靈壁東南),筑壘安營,整頓部隊,恢復軍力,此時楚軍尚有約十萬人。

        韓信、彭越、英布等會合劉邦后,十二月(前202年初,當時以十月為歲首)在垓下將向江南撤退的十萬楚軍層層包圍。

        漢軍以韓信親率三十萬人為主力,孔將軍為左翼,費將軍為右翼,劉邦坐鎮后方,周勃、柴武等預備軍在劉邦軍后待命。韓信親率漢軍發動攻勢,初戰進攻受挫后退,在楚軍準備追擊時漢軍左右兩翼迂回夾擊楚軍,兩軍短兵相接陷入膠著,這時韓信帶領大軍翻身再戰,楚軍在三面夾擊中被擊敗。項羽被迫退回垓下城。

        四面楚歌

        漢軍夜間高唱楚歌,楚軍自項羽以下莫不以為漢已盡得楚地,乃士氣崩潰。項羽眼見大勢已去,便乘夜率領八百精銳騎兵突圍南逃。天明以后,漢軍得知項羽突圍,于是派遣五千騎兵追擊。項羽渡過淮水后,僅剩百余騎相隨,行至陰陵(今安徽定遠西北)因迷路耽擱了時間(《史記》中交代因田父欺騙),被漢軍追及,項羽突至東城(今安徽定遠東南),手下僅剩二十八騎。

        烏江決戰

        項羽指揮這二十八騎,來回沖陣,再次殺開一條血路,向南疾走,至烏江(今安徽和縣東北長江邊的烏江浦)邊,自覺無顏見江東父老,乃令從騎皆下馬,以短兵器與漢兵搏殺,項羽一人 殺漢軍數百人,自己身亦被十余創,最后自刎而死,年31歲。項羽死后,漢軍全殲八萬楚軍,楚地皆降漢,獨項羽原封地的魯人不肯投降(楚懷王曾封項羽為魯公),后劉邦將項羽首級示魯,魯人乃降。至此,歷時4年半之久的楚漢戰爭終以劉邦的勝利而告終。www.bjzhmgsls.com

        公元前202年(漢高祖五年)二月甲午日,劉邦稱帝于汜水北岸,建立西漢政權。(漢初承秦制,以十月為歲首。也即漢高祖五年的第1個月為十月,接下來為十一月、十二月、一月、二月、三月、四月、五月、六月、七月、八月、九月。二月為當年的第5個月。)

        這就是垓下之戰的全過程,至于結果當然是項羽戰敗,喜歡的朋友請繼續關注悠悠千古事,歡迎留言評論。

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