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      當前位置:悠悠千古事 > 戰史風云 > 黃巢起義的原因 黃巢起義爆發的背景

      黃巢起義的原因 黃巢起義爆發的背景

      發布時間:2017-05-03  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

        唐代后期,江南的社會經濟雖有某些發展,但從皇帝到各級官吏,對人民的壓榨“惟思竭澤,不慮無魚”。僖宗時翰林學士劉允章指出當時國有“九破”,民有“八苦”,人民無法生活,只有起來反抗地主階級及其政府。黃巢起義爆發的背景,簡單來說:唐末人民生活的困苦。

        859年(大中十三年)十二月,裘甫領導浙東農民起義;868年十月,龐勛領導桂林戍卒起義;揭開了唐末農民起義的序幕。

        大起義的爆發與流動作戰。874年(乾符元年)末, 濮州(河南范縣濮城)人私鹽販王仙芝在長垣(河南長垣東北)起義,發布檄文,指斥唐政府官“吏貪沓,賦重、賞罰不平”。王仙芝自稱“天補平均大將軍”。這表明他要替天行道,改變財富不均的社會現實。同年六月,起義軍攻陷濮州、曹州(山東曹縣),擊敗唐天平節度使薛崇。次年,黃巢亦聚眾響應。

        黃巢為曹州冤句人,世代販鹽為業。幼年讀過詩書,學過騎射,科舉不第。他對當時社會的黑暗很不滿,曾賦《題菊花》和《不第后賦菊》詩,表達了要改變現實的決心。

        義軍在攻克洛陽之后,迅速統兵西進,通過潼關,于881 年一月八日(廣明元年十二月)進入唐都長安。僖宗率宦官田令孜等逃奔成都。義軍“甲騎如流,輜重塞途”。尚讓撫慰百姓說:“黃王起兵,本為百姓,非如李氏,不愛汝曹。汝曹但安居勿恐”。

        黃巢在長安即帝位,國號大齊,改元金統,以尚讓等為宰相,朱溫為諸衛大將軍,立起農民政權。當882年(中和二年)唐軍進行反攻時,形勢急轉直下。在這千鈞一發之際, 大將朱溫叛變投唐,長安防線崩潰,戰斗失利。黃巢率軍撤離長安,進入河南,因渡汴河時遭到官軍襲擊,隊伍潰散。尚讓等人投敵,黃巢率千余人進入山東。 884的(中和四年)六月十七日,在泰山狼虎谷自刎身死,起義失敗。

        黃巢領導的農民起義雖然失敗,但它具有深遠的歷史意義。領袖以天補平均大將軍、沖天大將軍為號召,反映義軍具有模糊的平均、平等要求,標志農民起義已進入一個新的階段。義軍在斗爭中注意分化敵人,避實就虛,運用流動戰術,在前后十年間,經過十二個省,行程兩萬余里。這是農民戰爭史上的一個創舉。

        唐末農民戰爭基本上瓦解了唐政府的腐朽統治,打擊了大地主莊田經濟,掃蕩了門閥殘余,使殘存的士族門閥“喪亡且盡”。土地集中和農民逃亡的問題因而緩和,自耕農增多,佃客的身份地位稍有改變。這就為五代、北宋社會經濟的發展提供了有利條件。

        以上就是關于“黃巢起義的原因 黃巢起義爆發的背景”的故事,喜歡的朋友請繼續關注悠悠千古事,歡迎留言評論。

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