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      當前位置:悠悠千古事 > 戰史風云 > 桂陵之戰:孫臏圍魏救趙擒龐涓

      桂陵之戰:孫臏圍魏救趙擒龐涓

      發布時間:2017-04-13  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

        桂陵之戰是歷史上一次著名截擊戰,發生在河南長垣西北。公元前354年(周顯王十五年),魏圍攻趙都邯鄲,次年趙向齊求救。齊王命田忌、孫臏率軍援救。孫臏認為魏以精銳攻邯鄲,國內空虛,于是率軍圍攻魏都大梁,使魏將龐涓趕回應戰。孫臏卻在桂陵(一說山東菏澤,一說河南長垣)伏襲,打敗魏軍,并生擒龐涓。孫臏在此戰中避實擊虛、攻其必救,創造了“圍魏救趙”戰法,成為兩千多年來軍事上誘敵就范的常用手段。

        孫臏謀劃:

        公元前353年(周顯王十六年),趙國派使者向齊、楚兩國求救。齊威王召集大臣們商議,鄒忌反對救援,而段干朋則建議齊威王分兵一路向南攻打襄陵(今河南省睢縣)來疲勞魏軍,然后趁魏軍攻破邯鄲后救援趙國,這樣既救援了趙國,又同時削弱了魏、趙兩國。

        齊威王采納段干朋的建議,兵分兩路,一路齊軍圍攻魏國的襄陵,一路由田忌、孫臏率領救援趙國。

        齊軍兵分兩路,一路與宋國景敵、衛國公孫倉所率部隊會合,圍攻魏國的襄陵。一路由田忌、孫臏率領救援趙國。齊威王打算讓孫臏擔任主將,但孫臏以遭受過酷刑、身體有殘疾為由拒絕。齊威王于是任命田忌為主將,孫臏為軍師,讓坐在帶著蓬帳的車子中出謀劃策。

        圍魏救趙:

        此時魏軍主力已攻破趙國首都邯鄲,龐涓率軍八萬到達茬丘,隨后進攻衛國,齊國方面田忌、孫臏率軍八萬到達齊、魏兩國邊境地區。田忌想要直接與魏軍主力交戰,但被孫臏阻止。孫臏認為魏國長期攻打趙國,主力消耗于外,老弱疲憊于內,國內防務空虛,應當采用聲東擊西、圍魏救趙的戰術,直搗魏國首都大梁迫使魏國撤軍,魏國一撤軍,趙國自然得救。孫臏于是建議田忌南下佯攻魏國的平陵(今山東省菏澤市定陶區東北),因為平陵城池雖小,但管轄的地區很大,人口眾多,兵力很強,是東陽地區(指魏國首都大梁以東的地區)的戰略要地,很難被攻克;而且平陵南面是宋國,北面是衛國,進軍途中要經過市丘,容易被切斷糧道,佯攻此地能很好的迷惑魏軍,造成龐涓產生齊軍主將指揮無能的錯覺。

        田忌采納孫臏的計謀,拔營向平陵進軍。接近平陵時,孫臏向田忌建議由臨淄(今山東省淄博市)、高唐(今山東省高唐縣)兩城的都大夫率軍直接向平陵發動攻擊,吸引魏軍主力,果然攻打平陵的兩路齊軍大敗。孫臏讓田忌一面派出輕裝戰車,直搗魏國首都大梁的城郊,激怒龐涓迫使其率軍回援;一面讓田忌派出少數部隊佯裝與龐涓的部隊交戰,故作示弱使其輕敵。田忌按孫臏的要求一一照辦,龐涓果然丟掉輜重,以輕裝急行軍晝夜兼程回救大梁。孫臏帶領主力部隊在桂陵(今河南省長垣縣西南)設伏,一舉擒獲龐涓。

        以上就是關于“桂陵之戰:孫臏圍魏救趙擒龐涓”的故事,喜歡的朋友請繼續關注悠悠千古事,歡迎留言評論。

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