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      牧野之戰,周武王“以至仁伐至不仁”

      發布時間:2018-07-03  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

       

      新鄉市牧野公園的鷹揚苑,為紀念牧野之戰而建。

      新鄉市牧野公園的鷹揚苑,為紀念牧野之戰而建。


        經過幾代人的積蓄,姜尚和武王都認為,討伐殷商的時機已經成熟。所謂時機成熟,除了傳統的說法:昏庸淫樂、屠殺忠臣、眾叛親離、民不聊生之外,現代學者還有一種看法,就是當時已經有大批殷商貴族和武王結成同盟,答應里應外合,加入武王的討伐大軍。

        被后人尊為武圣人的姜尚,其實是搞間諜情報工作的高手。《孫子兵法》中就稱贊:“昔殷之興也,伊摯在夏;周之興也,呂牙在殷。故唯明君賢將,能以上智為間者,必成大功。”伊摯,就是伊尹,呂牙就是姜尚,孫子把“殷周之有天下”歸于這兩位王佐之才的間諜活動,是一種高度肯定。

        商人有先進的青銅冶煉技術,兵器堅固鋒利,還有記錄語言的獨特技術:文字;由此組建起龐大軍事和行政機器,以及高度分工的文明。商人稱霸中原六百年,從沒有外來威脅可以動搖它的統治。

        弱小的周人想推翻強大的商國,必須劍走偏鋒,從其內部找辦法,姜尚就找到了一條捷徑——商人并非一個團結的整體,紂王身邊充斥著心懷不滿的兄弟和宗族成員,他的兒子們也為爭奪繼承權明爭暗斗,甚至還有學者認為,紂王并非后世描述的那樣昏庸,而是他的一些改革措施觸動了守舊派貴族的利益,這些人要么公開跳出來反對,要么和周人“勾結”,或傳遞情報,或臨陣倒戈。

        正如史學家侯外廬先生認為的那樣,“倒戈者不是奴隸,正是殷末社會變革之下的守舊派”。史學家羅祖基先生也認為,紂王發動的改革是導致守舊派貴族在周軍壓境時背叛的主要原因。像閎夭、散宜生這些曾經的商臣,最終也公開反叛到了周。

        由于史料的缺失和模糊,我們如今無法知曉背叛紂王的殷商貴族究竟有多少?里應外合的商臣都有誰?但經過史學家們的梳理,一個叫膠鬲的人逐漸浮出水面。膠鬲是紂王時期的一個貴族,根據文獻的記載,他曾經掌管過國家鹽業,大概也算是部長級的高官了。《國語》中就曾隱晦地將膠鬲和妲己并稱為殷商亡國的禍首,《呂氏春秋》也隱約透露出膠鬲向武王傳遞情報的故事。史學大家丁山先生就直言不諱地認為,膠鬲有可能是周人間諜,或許正是他策劃了牧野之戰的“前徒倒戈”。

        牧野之戰血流漂杵

        公元前1046年,武王帶著軍隊抵達朝歌城外的牧野。

        這次伐紂,周幾乎總動員。綜合《史記》、《戰國策》、《詩經》的記載,武王這次帶去的兵力為戰車三百多輛、虎賁(精銳部隊)三千人、士卒兩萬六千多人,加上趕來助陣的諸侯軍隊,總兵力應該有四萬五千人——所以大家不要被所謂的文王“天下三分有其二”之說迷惑,即使在武王伐紂時,周的力量還很弱小,所謂的八百諸侯可多是千人或萬人的部落,這些盟友的兵力估計也就幾百人或者幾千人。

        武王的對手紂王,由于主力軍隊還在和東夷人作戰,只好臨時組織了奴隸(成分可能主要為東夷奴隸),拼湊了70萬人(另一說為17萬人)的軍隊迎戰。

        戰爭的過程,以前常見的說法,是武王“以至仁伐至不仁”,奴隸紛紛倒戈,武王兵不血刃,大獲全勝,進入朝歌。

        這個說法,只有書呆子才信。

        根據《武成》、《世俘》的記載,“牧野之戰,血流漂杵,赤地千里”,雙方進行了一場血戰。

        牧野之戰和進入朝歌前后,周軍不僅俘虜了大量人員物資,可能還對朝歌進行了掠奪。根據顧頡剛先生的統計,武王伐紂的戰利品如下:戰馘(guo,戰后將敵人的左耳割下計入戰功)十余萬(這是一個很恐怖的數字,周國聯軍不過四萬多人,減去后勤輜重文職等非一線成員,這意味著一個聯軍士兵平均要割掉敵人3只耳朵),戰俘三十余萬;掠走虎犀熊等動物一萬余頭;祭牲牛羊犬三千余頭;佩玉十八萬塊……另外,忠于紂王的一百名大臣被押往周國,等候在武王祭祀時作為“人牲”……

        因此,作為改朝換代的戰爭,牧野之戰絕不可能是孟子所言“以至仁伐至不仁”的兵不血刃之戰,而討伐紂王的周軍,推翻紂王,恐怕也不僅僅是為了“仁義”,戰爭能夠洗刷幾代國君的恥辱,更能夠掠奪大量財富。

        維師尚父時維鷹揚

        讓我們把目光拉回到那個結束殷商六百年統治、開啟二周八百年江山的日子——公元前1046年1月26日的凌晨,雙方軍隊連夜集結備戰,連綿篝火映紅了曠遠夜空,人和牲畜的走動喧嘩聲終夜不休。當天空現出幽深的藍色——這個武王每每從噩夢中驚醒的時刻,雙方軍隊列陣完畢。

        周人和他們的同盟軍,總共四萬五千人。而商紂王集結的軍隊,則像樹林一樣多得無法計算——“殷商之旅,其會如林”(《詩經》),最低的估計也有十七萬人,而且新的部隊可能還在源源不斷開來。

        周聯軍列成方陣,向殷商的矛戟叢林走去。前排敵人的面貌越來越清晰,緊張氣氛陡然加劇,聯軍將士終于再也無法挪動腳步。

        一方是統治中原六百年的主人,一方只是數十年來活躍于西部邊陲的方國,無論是雙方的最高統帥還是普通士兵,都被命運之神帶到了這個戰場,他們都沒有其他選擇——要么在榮光之中踏上凱旋之路,要么被押解著送上“人牲”的祭壇。

        曾經被噩夢困擾了數年的武王姬發做了戰前動員:“今予發,唯恭行天之罰。今日之事,不愆于六步、七步,乃止齊焉。勖哉夫子!”(《尚書》)

        經過短暫而沉寂的對峙,不可思議的一幕出現了:年過七旬、以老謀深算著稱的太公姜尚,突然拋棄了所有的陰謀、詐術和詭計,如同一介武夫般怒發沖冠沖向敵陣。周人的求戰欲望一下子被點燃,吶喊著撕開敵人的防線……

        “牧野洋洋,檀車煌煌,駟騵彭彭。維師尚父,時維鷹揚。涼彼武王,肆伐大商”。在《詩經》中,姜太公在那個清晨如同一只白頭蒼鷹盤旋在牧野上空。他面前的敵軍陣列瞬間解體,變成了互相砍殺混戰的人群。武王的部隊旋即啟動,三百多輛戰車沖向商紂的中軍王旗之處,虎賁勇士和聯軍部隊也展開攻擊……


        在關鍵時刻,膠鬲等殷商貴族撕下了最后的偽裝,在隊伍中高喊“商軍失敗了,周軍勝利了”,擾亂商軍的陣線,甚至反戈一擊。在此之前,紂王打了很多次仗,百戰百勝,從未失手,但相信此時他已經明白局勢無可挽回……面對敵人的進攻和部下的臨陣反叛,只有仍忠于殷商的將軍和士兵們在進行最后的拼死抵抗。

        牧野之戰整整持續了一天,周人以其特有的剛毅戰勝了商軍的頑強——當大地被鮮血徹底染紅后,紂王逃離了戰場,返回朝歌,在那里,他將結束自己和整個殷商王朝;而作為勝利者的周人,開始大步向朝歌邁進……

        一個時代即將結束,另一個嶄新的時代即將開始。
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