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      中法戰爭 近代化之父劉銘傳如何保臺灣

      發布時間:2018-06-25  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

      核心內容:1883年12月,中法戰爭爆發,法國組建了以孤拔為司令的遠東艦隊,兵分兩路,直指福建和臺灣。淮系將領劉銘傳在臺灣積極組織防御,取得了馳名中外的“淡水大捷”。持續了一年三個月中法戰爭結束了,這是晚清少見的對外戰爭的勝利,法國茹費理政府垮臺。1885年10月12號,臺灣正式建省,劉銘傳出任首任的巡撫。七年中,他立下卓越功勛,被譽為臺灣近代化之父。

      鳳凰衛視2月8日《鳳凰大視野》,以下為文字實錄:

      解說:大潛山名不見經傳,山腳下的劉老圩卻煊赫一時。當地人都知道,這是一代風云人物劉銘傳的故居。

      公元1884年4月,此時的劉銘傳正在杭州西湖之畔,幽游林下,詩酒會友。三年多前,因給朝廷上了個《鑄造鐵路以圖自強折》,無端遭到頑固派激烈地反對和攻擊,讓他郁悶不已。一氣之下,干脆徑自返鄉,再次過起了怡然自得的賦閑生活。

      此時的大清王朝,適值多事之秋,戰爭的陰霾已深深籠罩在南中國海上空。法國人繼攻占越南的山西、北寧之后,大有把戰火燒到中國沿海和本土的勢頭。4月13日,法艦“伏爾達”號公然竄至臺灣基隆口岸,繪制地圖,伺機偵探,“借端挑釁”。八天之后,上諭頒發,劉銘傳臨危授命,應召出山。這一次,對手絕非等閑之輩,狂傲不羈的劉麻子能和船堅炮利的法國人一比高低嗎?驍勇善戰的他又該如何應對法軍那咄咄逼人的進攻呢?

      竇文濤:歡迎收看《鳳凰大視野》,上周咱們一連五集講淮軍的故事,本周呢,繼續講述近代史上這段傳奇。話說19世紀60年代,越南,這跟中國山水相連、唇齒相依的越南,沒安寧日子了,怎么說?法國人,這大棒政策是屢屢見效,先是強迫越南割讓以西貢為中心的南方大片土地。而后,又相繼攻陷越南的北方重鎮河內,還有首都順化。越南在歷史上一直對中國是朝貢稱臣的,這時候眼瞅著就要亡國的滅頂之災了,所以就多次向它的宗主國,清廷求援。清廷當時采取的叫保藩固邊的政策,所以下令前線的滇、桂軍,駐防越南的北圻地區。其中呢,這桂軍的統領黃桂蘭本是淮軍將領。

      1883年12月,法軍水陸并進,直撲越南的山西省城,中法軍隊在相互對峙一年多以后,終于正式開戰。

      解說:戰爭一開始,法國人就頻頻得手,清軍先折山西,再敗北寧,消息傳來,舉國嘩然。

      姜鳴(近代史學家):北寧戰役是在1884年的3月上旬爆發的,清軍傷亡了一千多人,黃桂蘭也因戰敗以后在諒山服毒自盡。清政府震怒之下,將廣西巡撫徐延旭、云南巡撫唐炯革職拿問。然后,派署里云南巡撫潘鼎新赴廣西來籌辦邊防事務。

      解說:1884年6月上旬,法軍在冒失鬼杜森尼中校的率領下,奉命向北推進,23日,到達諒山以南的觀音橋,進入清軍防區。“觀音橋事件”使中法戰事迅速升溫。三天后,法國組建了以孤拔為司令的遠東艦隊,兵分兩路,直指福建和臺灣。

      何平立(上海政法學院教授):法國當時它的戰略是公開的,是明確的,從法國的新聞界、報界一直到法國的首相,都公開地叫囂要“據地為質”。它這什么意思呢?就是占了一個地方作為擔押品,向你清政府進行談判,討價還價。最后法軍的占領目標選在臺灣。

      解說:臺海局勢頓時岌岌可危,就在這個結骨眼上,隱居14年之久的劉銘傳終于出場了。

      劉銘傳,合肥西鄉人,幼年因出天花臉上留下麻點,加上兄弟排行為六,便有了“劉六麻子”的綽號,別看他長的短小精悍,個性卻很生猛。李鴻章對劉銘傳恩寵有加,格外器重,劉銘傳也的確不負厚望,出道僅三年,即因戰功從副將、總兵升至直隸提督,賞穿黃馬褂。但大清朝的官場歷來重文輕武,劉麻子對此一直耿耿于懷,幾次浩然歸里,身心懼疲固然不假,遲遲當不上封疆大吏才真正讓他感到窩心和尷尬。

      張研(中國人民大學教授):劉銘傳很快就做到了提督,提督是什么呢?提督現在就是我們現在省軍區的司令,這到頭了這就。所以為什么劉銘傳一直在那鬧,他不愿意當這武職,當武職施展不了他的抱負。

      解說:1870年6月,“天津教案”平息后,劉銘傳受命以欽差大臣督辦陜西軍務,并獲“專折奏事”的特權,明眼人看得出,李鴻章的這一舉薦,是為他下一步出任陜西巡撫鋪平道路。可要命的是,在此之前湘系大佬,原閩浙總督左宗棠,同樣被委以欽差大臣的身份督辦西北軍務。清廷如此安排,其意不言而喻。

      孔祥吉(美國哈佛大學教授):當時這個,軍機首輔醇親王和慈禧他們在談話過程中,他們有時寫成書信的方式講,他說我們對這兩個淮系和湘系,不能夠說就支持哪一個,我們兩派都要支持。他讓淮系和湘系形成了一個叫雙塔插云之勢,這樣他們兩個由于互相矛盾、互相爭奪,我們居中很容易駕馭。

      解說:兩人在陜甘任上積不相能、互相攻訐。結果被清廷各打五十大板,眼看封疆無望,劉麻子以“腦痛欲裂,坐臥難安”為由,決然引退,回到家鄉一呆就是14年。有趣的是,這對勢如水火的老冤家,在保家衛國方面反倒驚人地一致,彼此都立下了最卓越的功勛,一個在西北收復伊犁,一個在東南抗法保臺,至今為國人所贊不絕口。

      竇文濤:1884年的夏天,那個戰爭氣氛好喧囂,壓得人喘不過氣,因為中法戰爭的形勢不斷惡化,朝廷就決定再起用劉銘傳,并且正式委任劉銘傳以巡撫督銜辦臺灣的軍務。7月里的一天,這劉銘傳肩負重任,從天津悄悄去上海,他這一來,馬上就各方關注,法國高度緊張,密切監視行蹤,可是呢,讓人覺得奇怪的是,劉銘傳在上海期間,叫連日置酒高會,整天逍遙自在,這個劉麻子葫蘆里賣的什么藥?劉銘傳到上海以后,五一會兒說某日某日的赴臺,一會兒又說要是談判好了我就不去了,這個都是為了迷惑對方,當然,法國這個遠東艦隊司令孤拔,也不信他說的這一套,一直都在吳淞口外的洋面上,部署對劉銘傳這個攔擊。但是呢,你部署歸部署,你掌握不了他的行蹤,他對劉銘傳這樣的百戰名將,也是絲毫不敢掉以輕心。

      法軍是勞師遠道而來,那它付出的代價將是慘重的。

      解說:1884年7月16日,劉銘傳在成功擺脫法國人的盯梢后,抵達基隆。此時,距離法軍的進攻只剩下20天的時間,戰爭已迫在眉睫。

      劉慶(軍事科學院研究員):當時,清政府和法國人一直在談判,法國人勒索巨額賠款,但清政府拒絕了他這個要求,于是,法國侵略者就采取了“據地為質”的作戰計劃,把他的海軍分成兩部分,一部分由孤拔率領進攻福州,也就是我們所說的馬尾。另一部分由他的艦隊副司令利士比率領,去進攻基隆。

      解說:8月3日,利士比指揮的四艘戰艦駛至基隆海口。這個盛氣凌人的海軍少將送來了勸降書,清軍置之不理。惱羞變怒的利士比隨即下達了進攻命令。

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