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      當前位置:悠悠千古事 > 戰史風云 > 城濮之戰:強者之爭,為何楚國慘敗?

      城濮之戰:強者之爭,為何楚國慘敗?

      發布時間:2018-06-21  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

        在春秋戰國時期,中原制霸,占領主導地位幾乎是每個諸侯王夢寐以求的,但是紛爭時代強者為尊,沒有實力談什么稱雄爭霸?當然不自量力者亦有之,如宋襄公。泓水之戰楚軍勢力強盛,即便沒有宋襄公的“仁義”,楚軍想要獲勝也并不難。面對晉國就不一樣,勢均力敵,弄不好就會兩敗俱傷。但是楚軍的結果卻是慘敗?這是為什么呢?

        戰爭并不是兩軍對壘那么簡單,跟各個方面的因素都息息相關。公元前632年,晉楚兩國為爭奪中原霸權在城濮進行了一場關鍵性決戰。在晉文公的帶領下國力復興的晉國,出奇制勝贏了勢如破竹的楚國,奠定了晉國百年霸權地位。

        那么,到底是哪些因素影響了這場強者之爭的勝負呢?

        首先從內部情況來看。

        

      解讀城濮之戰:強者之爭,為何楚國慘敗?

       

        晉文公的御下能力要比楚成王出色。晉文公擅長收攏人心,繼位后一系列的政策都是維穩民心,很快就站住了政權。隨后對于處于對外關系,都非常謹慎,人才濟濟,出謀劃策,上下一心,政治基礎非常牢固。

        反觀楚國,君臣意見不一,楚成王心知晉國強大,不愿直面爭鋒,但是楚軍統帥卻非戰不可,甚至不聽君王勸誡。這里之所以不說是君王號令,主要在于楚成王退兵的意愿其實并不果決。猶猶豫豫,國君對一場戰役的態度竟然是抱著僥幸心理,這也是導致楚軍慘敗的一大原因。

        其次從外交手段上看。

        晉文公很顯然是長袖善舞型的。晉楚之間必有一爭,但是晉卻把自己的位子擺在了道德的制高點上——晉軍是打著救宋國的旗號伐楚的。按今天的說法就是,站在了輿論有利的一面。

        本來楚國就被中原列國視作蠻夷,中原人民難免排外,如今還被人打到家門口,是可忍孰不可忍。晉國出征就是扛起捍衛中原列國顏面的大旗,有著如此光明正大的借口,晉國自然就趁機開始擴大自己的勢力范圍,這也為晉文公后來稱霸奠定了基礎。

        晉文公老謀深算,深知楚軍強大,跟楚軍并不直面相碰,而是利用楚國與齊、秦之間的矛盾,拉攏盟友,保存自己的實力。同時又接著實現“退避三舍”承諾的借口,一直示弱,一面誘敵深入,一面使自己處在占理的一方,從而獲得政治上的主動。

        而楚國這個時候孤軍深入、后援難濟,還陷入聯盟瓦解的狀態,即便如此了,統帥都沒有清醒過來,剛愎自用,以為晉軍畏懼,一味追擊。

        

      解讀城濮之戰:強者之爭,為何楚國慘敗?

       

        最后,從城濮之戰的戰略方針上看。

        終于前期該鋪墊好的都鋪墊好了,晉軍也不再退讓了,兩軍在城濮交鋒,大戰一觸即發。

        這個時候就看出晉軍先前鋪墊的作用了。“退避三舍”讓楚軍輕敵,而且長途追擊,楚軍已經有些疲倦了,那么這個時候彼竭我盈,晉軍占得先機。

        城濮決戰時,晉軍依然選擇避其鋒芒的策略,先攻楚軍右師,而后以佯裝潰敗誘敵深入,反擊楚軍左師,最后兩翼盡師,楚軍不得不匆忙收兵。

        城濮之戰,可以看出晉軍戰略嚴謹,戰前指揮有方,前線配合有度,從一開始就如一支利箭,指哪兒打哪兒。而楚軍明明察覺到晉軍退卻是以逸待勞,卻仍然輕敵中計,決戰之時,左右回援不及,指揮失當,被敵軍各個擊破,最終落得全面潰敗的結局。在這場戰役中,有兩個人起著非常重要的作用。一個是晉文公,一個是楚成王。

        盡管城濮之戰有諸多以上的因素,但是這場戰役中人的影響力也起著決定性的作用。作為晉軍一方的領袖,晉文公對待戰爭的態度是嚴謹的。多年的流亡生活讓晉文公為人處世十分靈活,并不講究虛無的面子,該退就退,該示弱就示弱。同時非常懂得知人善任,身邊聚集了一批忠臣良將,上下一心,協同作戰,對這場戰爭的勝利起到十分關鍵的作用。

        

      解讀城濮之戰:強者之爭,為何楚國慘敗?

       

        而楚軍這邊,的確統帥尹子玉要為這場戰爭的慘敗負責,驕傲輕敵,視戰爭如兒戲般隨意,想打就打,剛愎自用成為了戰事失利的禍根。

        但是個人認為楚成王才是這場戰爭失利的主因。作為一個想要爭霸的君主,不應該被一時的勝利沖昏頭腦,這一點楚成王做到了,所以才會有“知難而退”的想法,但是對子玉的出戰不堅決加以制止,處事輕率,首鼠兩端。對待一場至關重要的戰役竟然是抱著僥幸心理參戰的,這將前線將士的生死置于何地?

        從國家實力上看,晉楚都是十分強盛的國家,但是領導人的水平高低在影響城濮之戰勝負上起到了關鍵性作用,也決定了此后百年的霸權地位該由誰占據。晉之勝利與楚之失敗,都值得后人深思。

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