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      當前位置:悠悠千古事 > 戰史風云 > 城濮之戰晉文公為何要退避三舍? 晉文公是個什么樣的人?

      城濮之戰晉文公為何要退避三舍? 晉文公是個什么樣的人?

      發布時間:2018-06-21  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

        晉文公退避三舍的故事成為中國歷史上最著名的報恩故事。話說晉文公在外流亡了十九年,當然也到過楚國。在楚國期間楚成王十分高興,天天款待他。晉文公也就是重耳十分高興,答應如果自己回國當君主,一定會兩國共好。共建美好家園云云。

        春秋時期,晉國君主晉獻公的寵妃驪姬為了讓自己的兒子繼承王位,害死了太子,又害得太子的兩個弟弟重耳和夷吾逃亡國外,各奔東西。

        重耳逃亡到楚國時,得到了楚成王的厚待,重耳非常感激。有一天,楚王又設宴招待重耳。酒過三巡,楚王問重耳:“日后公子若返回晉國做了國君,如何報答寡人?”重耳一時不知該怎樣回答,說:“楚國富饒,什么都不缺,我實在不知該如何報答。假如真的有那一天,我希望與楚國永遠和睦相處。”

        楚王已有幾分醉意,說:“列國爭霸,也說不定有一天楚國會與晉國交兵,公子你怎么辦?”重耳老老實實地回答:“倘若真是不得已交兵,我愿命令部隊退讓三舍(九十里)。”意思是說不想與楚國發生戰爭。后來,秦國出兵平定了晉國內亂,殺滅群奸,重耳得以回國做了國君,稱晉文公。他整頓朝綱,發展生產,逐漸使國家變得強盛起來。

        楚王早有稱霸中原的野心,第一步想先消滅宋國。宋襄公便派人向晉國求援。晉文公與群臣商量。狐偃、趙衰等大將主張不要直接與楚軍交鋒,而去討伐歸附楚國的衛、曹兩個小國。

        晉文公于是派先軫為大將,順利地攻克了衛、曹兩國,并俘獲了這兩國的君主。楚國大將成得臣得到消息,只好暫緩攻打宋國,派使者見晉文公,表示愿意不再伐宋,希望晉軍能退出衛、曹領地。晉文公接受條件,讓衛成公和曹共公復國,但要求他們從此臣服晉國。

        成得臣得知消息之后暴跳如雷,決意要與晉文公決一死戰。他指揮大軍,向晉國發起進攻。晉文公想起當年對楚王的承諾,便命令部隊向后撤退。眾將都不解,說:“主公難道怕成得臣嗎?”晉文公說:“不,成得臣有勇無謀,我怎么會怕他呢?只是我當初與楚王有諾:一旦交兵,我當退避三舍,不可失信。”于是,晉軍一口氣退了九十里,在一個名叫城濮的地方駐扎下來。

      與“城濮之戰晉文公為何要退避三舍? 晉文公是個什么樣的人?”相關內容推薦
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