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      城濮之戰:開“兵者詭道也”先河之戰

      發布時間:2018-06-21  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

       

      城濮之戰:開“兵者詭道也”先河之戰


      城濮之戰地圖

       



        

       

      城濮之戰:開“兵者詭道也”先河之戰


      城濮之戰介紹文字

        公元前632年,為爭奪中原霸權,晉軍謀略制勝,在城濮(今山東鄄城西南)大敗楚軍,開“兵者詭道也”先河的一次作戰。

        晉文公于二十年(公元前632年)初,率軍由棘津(今河南滑縣西南)渡河,進攻附楚的曹、衛,企圖誘楚來援以解宋圍。正月占衛五鹿(今河南清豐西北),二月進至斂盂(今河南濮陽東南)與齊昭公會盟,都城楚丘(今河南滑縣東北)的衛人逐其君降晉。

        三月攻占曹都陶丘(今山東定陶西北)。但楚軍不受調動,反而加緊圍攻商丘。宋向晉告急,晉文公用先軫建議,利用秦、齊“喜賄怒頑”的心理,運用外交謀略制造秦、齊與楚的矛盾。一面讓宋重賄秦、齊,請兩國出面求楚退兵,一面分曹、衛之地與宋,堅其抗楚決心。商丘未能攻下,而曹、衛之地又被晉送于宋國,楚因而拒絕退兵。秦、齊遂出兵助晉,形成三強聯合對楚的戰略格局。

        楚成王見形勢不利,恐秦乘機攻其后方,退至申邑(今河南滎陽西北),并令圍攻商丘和緡邑以及占領谷邑的楚軍撤回。但圍攻商丘的主將子玉,驕傲自負,堅請與晉一戰。楚成王決心動搖,同意子玉建議,但又不肯全力決戰,僅派王室親兵600人增援子玉。子玉派人與晉交涉:如晉許曹、衛復國,楚即解宋之圍。晉國君臣認為形勢有利,希望決戰,但恐不允子玉條件,將遭宋、曹、衛三國仇恨。于是一面暗許曹、衛復國,勸其與楚絕交,一面扣留楚使臣以激怒子玉。子玉果怒而求戰,率軍進逼陶丘。晉文公為疲敝楚軍,誘使子玉輕敵深入,以便在預定戰場與楚決戰。遂退避三舍(一舍為15千米),至城濮與秦、齊軍會合。

        四月初一,楚軍進至城濮,初二,雙方對陣。晉軍在秦、齊軍聲援下配置為上、中、下三軍;楚軍以陳、蔡軍為右軍,申、息兩軍為左軍,主力精銳為中軍。晉統帥先軫下令首先擊潰較弱的楚右軍;并讓晉上軍佯退,于陣后拖柴揚塵,制造后軍已退的假象,以誘楚左軍進擊,使其暴露側翼,爾后回軍與中軍實施合擊,又將楚左軍擊潰。子玉及時收住兵力,方免于中軍敗潰。楚軍退至連谷(今河南西華境)時,子玉自殺。

        此戰,晉文公及先軫等,決戰前充分運用外交謀略,是由實力制勝向謀略制勝的轉折點;決戰中,晉軍先弱后強,各個擊破,示利誘敵,在戰術上也有所發展。
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