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      當前位置:悠悠千古事 > 野史秘聞 > 被宮廷藝術所引領的投資市場

      被宮廷藝術所引領的投資市場

      發布時間:2018-06-13  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

      清乾隆 御制青白玉交龍鈕‘自強不息’寶璽 成交價:114.5萬元 倫敦蘇富比2016

      清乾隆 御制青白玉交龍鈕‘自強不息’寶璽 成交價:114.5萬元 倫敦蘇富比2016

        談及宮廷藝術品總會讓人想起帝王的奢華,而與其相應的拍品也因近十年的‘天價’頻現讓人望而卻步。去年年底一件乾隆壽山石玉璽以1.6億元的‘天價’在法國成交,但因傳出買家‘失聯’鬧得滿城風雨,甚至因買家是溫商而斷章取義歸罪于‘溫州人’實屬不該。秋季拍賣各大重要拍賣企業再次推出宮廷藝術品相關專場,雖為取得往日佳績但也優勢盡顯。

        宮廷藝術品在大眾眼里是頗感神秘而又望塵莫及的名詞,然而在藏家的概念中,則是古代帝王實用或賞玩之物。宮廷藝術品有著嚴格的設計和制作制度不僅體現著帝王的意志和偏好,還對民間的喜好具有很大的傾向性和指導性。

        ‘宮廷’概念源于競爭 稀世珍品回報驚人

      清乾隆 御制銅錯金銀特等第一號火槍 成交價:198.5萬英鎊 倫敦蘇富比2016年

      清乾隆 御制銅錯金銀特等第一號火槍 成交價:198.5萬英鎊 倫敦蘇富比2016年

      清乾隆 御制銅錯金銀特等第一號火槍(二) 成交價:198.5萬英鎊 倫敦蘇富比2016年

      清乾隆 御制銅錯金銀特等第一號火槍(二) 成交價:198.5萬英鎊 倫敦蘇富比2016年

        ‘宮廷藝術’的概念是上世紀九十年代香港佳士得率先提出的,為的是把宮廷藝術和普通拍品進行剝離。此概念的提出源自香港市場蘇富比(微博)與佳士得的競爭,早在20世紀70年底已進入香港的蘇富比占據先天優勢,使得香港佳士得不得不在市場策略上出奇制勝,而此時的掌門人林華田將書畫、瓷器以及雜項抽離出來,用‘宮廷藝術’進行華麗包裝并占據市場。

        內地市場億元頻現 各類拍品業績突顯

        內地宮廷藝術品拍賣市場的突飛猛進始于2010年秋拍,此年秋拍中國嘉德推出‘秋光萬華——清代宮廷藝術集萃’成交額高達6.94億元,其中“王羲之 草書《平安帖》手卷”以3.08億元問鼎,另一件拍品“嘉靖癸丑(1553年)作 情韻墨花 手卷”也拍得1.13億元的高價,同一專場誕生兩件億元拍賣在宮廷藝術品拍賣市場尚屬首次。

      帕拉11世紀 至稀至珍雙色銅合鑄釋迦牟尼成道像 成交價:2530萬元 中國嘉德2016年春拍

      帕拉11世紀 至稀至珍雙色銅合鑄釋迦牟尼成道像 成交價:2530萬元 中國嘉德2016年春拍

        無獨有偶,時隔不足半月北京保利推出的“咀英澄華——清代宮廷典藏中國古代書畫夜場”更是拍出了7.42億元的成交額,其中“佚名 宋 漢宮秋圖 手卷”以1.68億元拔得頭籌,另一件“乾隆帝 1750年作 御筆漢柏圖”以8736萬元的高價再次刷新帝王書畫拍賣紀錄。

        2013年春拍內地與香港宮廷藝術品拍賣市場齊頭并進。中國嘉德宮廷藝術品專場推出的“清乾隆 御制白玉交龍鈕‘自強不息’寶璽”與“清嘉慶 ‘嘉慶御筆之寶’交龍鈕碧玉寶璽?”攜手斬獲1.01億元,其中前者以6670萬元問鼎,后者以3350萬的高價位居次席。

        貢、督、采、造禮制森嚴 品精價高勢弱慎藏

      乾隆御制竹爐山房詩題銘段泥扁圓壺 成交價:138萬元 中國嘉德2016年秋拍

      乾隆御制竹爐山房詩題銘段泥扁圓壺 成交價:138萬元 中國嘉德2016年秋拍

        早期的宮廷規模一般,并沒有設置專門制作宮廷用品的造辦機構,皇室御用多依靠各地進貢與宮廷采辦,重要禮儀用品指派專門大臣督辦,如秦兵馬俑出土文物多有‘李斯督造’字樣。此后,隨著國家及皇室規模的不斷擴大,皇室用品也大幅度增加,再加上禮制越加嚴格的規定與國家采辦銀兩投放的不確定,不僅使得諸多地方制品及貢品參差不齊不合規范,也使得采辦制度難以維持宮廷需求。至此催生皇家御用開始向‘造辦’過度。

        宋元兩代官辦產業逐漸興起,最著名的莫過于宋代汝、官、哥、鈞、定與元代景德鎮官窯體系,但此時采取的形式多為‘官監民燒’,然后‘千、百中選一’。此種情形一直延續到明代后期,此時中國人口已達兩億余人,僅皇室成員更是接近五十余萬。而至清朝更甚,清朝為規避封王制度帶來的權利分散弊端,更是將王公貝勒皇室成員大部分集中在京城,形成了龐大而集中的皇室系統。當皇室、王族與官宦集團規模發展到一定規模時,原有的‘造辦’體系,無論數量還是質量均已遠不能滿足皇室系統的需求。

      清 觀音翡翠 成交價:7475萬元 北京匡時2016年秋拍

      清 觀音翡翠 成交價:7475萬元 北京匡時2016年秋拍

        故此,到清代造辦體系分化兩大系統,一類是專供宮廷的‘養心殿造辦處’,另一類供于宮廷之外皇室成員的‘內務府造辦處’。‘養心殿造辦處’匯聚了國家最優秀的藝術和技術人員,也就是全國頂尖的能工巧匠,它們創造了當時中國工藝技術的最高水平,當時無數國寶級的工藝品均出自他們之手。此機構的主要職能除孤本創作,還囊括用品開發和科技研發。用品開發只專注皇室用品,確定紋飾、型制等后制成樣品,下發到相應的官辦機構進行生產。科技研發還匯聚中、外的優秀人才,琺瑯彩、三釉瓷(正黃、正紅、影青)、皇家琉璃器等巔峰之作,均是由養心殿的研發人員創作出來的。

      蔣廷錫 百種牡丹譜 成交價:1.7365億元 北京匡時2016年春拍

      蔣廷錫 百種牡丹譜 成交價:1.7365億元 北京匡時2016年春拍

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