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      為什么明朝的好官也貪污受賄?

      發布時間:2017-05-02  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

        很多人都知道明朝的開創者、明太祖朱元璋是最痛恨貪官的了,但是為什么就連好官也貪污受賄?朱元璋反貪絕對是動真格,對貪官使用嚴刑酷法,剝皮點燈,無所不用其極。但是縱觀大明276年統治,清官只有海瑞,屈指可數,而貪官無數,就連萬歷首輔、著名改革政治家張居正,死后被抄家時,還挖出20萬兩白銀,稱其為貪官也不為過。

        為什么明朝的好官也貪污受賄?想當年,建國初期,朱元璋就非常動情地對大臣們說過這樣的話:“朕昔在民間時,見州縣官多不恤民,往往貪財好色,引酒過度。凡民之疾苦,視之漠然,心實怒之。故今嚴法禁,但遇官貪污蠹害吾民者,罰之不恕。”這句話意思,是說朱元璋出身貧寒,受過舊社會剝削,對貪官污吏深惡痛絕。

        當然他這樣說也不全是作秀,做了皇帝的朱元璋,頒布了有史以來最為嚴厲的肅貪法令:貪污60兩以上銀子者,立殺。60兩銀子是什么概念,現代每克銀價合人民幣4元,一兩50克銀子合人民幣200元,60兩銀子就是人民幣一萬二,貪污受賄12000元就是死罪,這個反貪標準絕對算得上是史上最嚴。同時,對于做官不做貪官要做清官,朱元璋還有一套自己的廉政理論。他經常對那些即將走上工作崗位的官員們諄諄教導:“老老實實地守著自己的薪俸過日子,就像是守著井底之泉。井雖不滿,可卻能每天汲水,長久不斷。若是貪污受賄,一旦事發,你就要受牢獄之災。家破人亡了,贓物都成別人的了!”后來,有御用文人將朱元璋的這套廉政理論無限解讀,上升到了哲學高度,美其名曰“守井哲學”。

        嚴刑酷法,“守井哲學”,朱元璋為反貪可謂煞費苦心,可是洪武時期,官員貪污受賄問題解決了嗎?解決不了,就像朱元璋自己感嘆地那樣:奈何朝殺而夕犯。 早晨殺了一批,晚上又冒出好幾批。一個倒下了,十個站出來,十個倒下了,千百個站起來。為什么?朱元璋不明白,我來解釋:因為反腐倡廉,不是殺雞儆猴的事,而是制度環境的事。任何哲學、任何法律,都不能脫離現實行事。在大明時期,實行的是封建保守型官僚制度,這種制度下官員的實際工資并不高,而官員生存與升遷卻依然靠人身依附,再加上朱元璋以集權為能,明政府集權比之歷代有過之無不及,政府官員“薪水有限、貪機無限”,所以官員貪污受賄是必需的。

        比如按照朱元璋制定的工資標準,一位縣官每年的年薪是90石大米,平均到現在,每個月也有兩三千塊錢樣子。朱元璋覺得這已經不少了,他是拿自己以前當和尚的工資水平比較的,不切實際。你想,一個縣長到地方上去做事,那多事情怎么一個人完成,所以要找人做,招師爺招小工不發工資也沒人來,這個錢國家不給,自己掏腰包。這些開銷倒是小事,最要緊的,是上貢,上級決定你的升遷,逢年過節、迎來送往,不孝敬行嗎?這樣一路算下來,兩、三千塊錢的月工資,不等于讓縣長做無米之炊嗎?所以雖然朱元璋不停殺貪官,但貪污受賄有增無減,拋開官員的道德品質不講,僅就制度環境而言,有特權無高薪的官吏們必需貪污受賄,否則很難生存升遷。

        以上就是關于“為什么明朝的好官也貪污受賄?”的故事,喜歡的朋友請繼續關注悠悠千古事,歡迎留言評論。

        【本文由“悠悠千古事”發布,2017年5月2日】

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