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      當前位置:悠悠千古事 > 典籍名著 > 《吳子兵法》的某些軍事思想竟比《孫子兵法》還要先進?

      《吳子兵法》的某些軍事思想竟比《孫子兵法》還要先進?

      發布時間:2016-08-24  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

        《吳子兵法》雖然保存六篇,但也提出了一些很有價值的軍事思想,竟比《孫子兵法》還要先進?

        首先,它提出了一套政治、軍事并重,而以政治為先的戰爭觀念。《吳子兵法·圖國》說,要富國強兵,必須"內修文德,外治武備"。

        文德,指政治教化而言。武備,指軍事戰爭而言。它強調兩者必須并重,不可偏廢。并說歷史的經驗證明,承桑氏(古代部落)只修文德,不重武備,結果滅亡了。相反,有扈氏(夏代部落)恃眾好戰,不修文德,也滅亡了。這種戰爭觀是正確的。

        在政治、軍事并重的前提下,《吳子》更重視政治教化。它說:"昔之圖國家者,必先教百姓而親萬民。"教化的結果要做到四和:國家和睦,軍隊團結,上陣統一,戰斗協調,這樣君才算有道之主,民才"以進死為榮,退生為辱",國家才能夠出兵出戰。教化百姓的內容,主要是"道、義、禮、仁"四德。這四德關系國家興衰,"修之則興,廢之則衰"。

        《吳子》還試圖通過對戰爭起因的分析,來探索戰爭的實質。它說:"凡兵之所起者有五:一曰爭名,二曰爭利,三曰積惡,四曰內亂,五曰因饑。"以今日的觀點來看,這種對于戰爭起因的認識是膚淺的。但在戰國初期,《吳子》能注意到戰爭因"爭利"等經濟原因而引起,也是難能可貴的。由戰爭的五種起因出發,《吳子》又探索了戰爭的性質,把它區分為"義兵"、"強兵"、"剛兵"、"暴兵"、"逆兵"五類,并指出"義兵"是"禁暴救亂"的,"暴兵"是"棄禮貪利"的。這表明《吳子》試圖對戰爭的性質進行分類,以探求正義性的戰爭。雖然它的認識還比較模糊,但這無疑較《孫子》的認識前進了一步。

        《吳子》在戰爭觀上的另一貢獻是它提出了"戰勝易,守勝難"的問題。因為戰爭是用軍事手段解決問題,所以要取得勝利相對來說是容易的。而保守勝利成果,則不僅需要軍事手段,還需要政治、經濟、思想等各種手段,相對來說是困難的。何況勝利以消耗大量人力、物力為代價,所以他認為:戰爭勝利的次數越多,消耗人力、物力越大,而保守勝利的希望也就越小。由此出發,提出國家應該慎戰。這種觀點無疑也是進步的。

        其次,吳起提出了一套首先加強戰備,然后依據敵情,"見可而進,知難而退",施行"審敵虛實而趨其危"的戰略戰術原則。

        他在《料敵》篇對魏武侯說:"安國家之道,先戒為寶",讓武侯把加強戰備放在第一位。他簡要地分析了齊、秦、楚、燕、韓、趙、魏七國的地理條件、政治狀況、人民習俗、經濟實力、軍隊素質和軍陣陣法等特點,要武侯依據這些特點,制定對付列國的不同軍事策略。

        《吳子》主張戰前一定要察明敵情。依調查,如遇到以下情況,即:敵人不顧嚴寒酷暑,晝夜長途行軍,不管士卒勞苦;或長期滯留在外,糧食、物資耗盡,薪草、飼料缺乏,氣候不利,將士怨怒;或人數不多,水土不服,人馬患疫病,救兵不到;或長途跋涉,疲勞饑困,解甲休息;或敵將吏德薄望輕,軍心不穩,缺乏援助;或陣勢沒擺好,扎營沒完畢等,都應立刻"擊之勿疑"。

        相反,在察明敵情后,遇到以下幾種情況,即:敵地廣人富;將領愛護士卒,施恩普遍;賞罰嚴明,處置適當,以戰功論爵秩等列,任用賢才;兵力眾多,武器裝備精良;有四鄰的幫助,大國的支援等,就應該避開敵人,不與接戰。這就是著名的"見可而進,知難而退"的戰術原則。

        觀察敵人還要透過現象看本質,"觀敵之外,以知其內,察其進以知其止",然后確定我方的作戰方略。

        《吳子》強調用兵之道在于"審敵虛實而趨其危",也就是乘敵人的間隙,突然攻擊它的薄弱之點。如敵人遠來新到,戰斗隊形未排定;正在吃飯而不防備;正在奔走;疲勞困苦;沒得地形之利;失掉天時;旌旗紊亂;長途跋涉,未得休息;涉水過河,剛渡過一半;道路險峻狹長;陣勢頻繁移動;將領脫離了士卒;軍心恐懼動搖。就應選派精銳作先鋒,勇敢攻擊,大兵跟進,"急擊勿疑"。這種建筑在對敵情詳盡分析上的攻擊策略,無疑是正確的,在今天仍有借鑒意義。

        在作戰中,敵我形勢是瞬息萬變的。吳起提出要善于根據變化的情況而改變我方的作戰方針。如:依據"敵眾我寡"的形勢,在平坦地形上,就避開敵人;在險要地形上,就截擊敵人。依據敵"師甚眾,既武且勇"的形勢,就分為五軍,各軍占據一通衢大道,迷惑敵人。交戰時佯裝敗退,一軍在前,一軍在后,兩軍在左、右擊敵,五軍結合起來,就可擊敗強敵。如果"敵近而薄我",我"欲去無路",則依據敵我情況:我眾敵寡,就分兵包圍敵人;如敵眾我寡,就集中兵力襲擊敵人。

        不停地襲擊,敵人雖多也可以制服。如在"丘陵、森林、谷地、深山、大澤"等復雜地形條件下遭遇敵軍,就要動作迅速,首先發動攻擊,乘勢沖擊敵人,并調動弓弩手到前敵。邊戰斗,邊觀察,一旦形勢對我有利,即全面發起攻勢。

        他還總結了在狹谷、在水上、陰雨天以及圍城戰的戰法,認為都要根據敵情,采取有力的應變措施。

        其三,《吳子兵法》在論將方面也有新的思想。吳子指出,將領要文武全才、剛柔兼備,具有"理、備、果、戒、約"五種才能。"理"是能"治眾如治寡";"備"是能"出門如見敵";"果"是能"臨敵不懷生";"戒"是能"雖克如始戰";"約"是能"法令省而不煩"。將領還要掌握用兵的四機:①氣機,能鼓舞士氣;②地機,能運用各種地形;③事機,臨事能運用計謀;④力機,善于保持和充實軍事力量。

        這樣的將領才是合格的將領。而"良將"在此之外還要具備"威、德、仁、勇"四種品質。良將是國家的棟梁,國家得之則強盛,失去會衰亡。所以,選拔良將十分重要。

        另一方面,吳子提出作戰時還要察明敵將的才干。利用敵將的不同特點采取不同的謀略,這是"不勞而功舉"的便宜事。他把敵將分為"愚而信"、"貪而忽名"、"輕變無謀"、"富而驕"、"進退多疑"等各種類型,而分別制定了"詐而誘、貨而賂、離而間、震而走、邀而取"的作戰方針等。在"兩軍相望,不知其將"的情況下,可以選派輕兵挑戰,務敗不務勝,來探知敵將是"智將"還是"愚將"。如為"智將",則"勿與戰";如為"愚將",則雖眾可俘獲。這些作戰原則都是他的前輩軍事家所沒有提出過的。

        其四,提出了"以教戒為先"的治軍原則和"頒賜有功者"的勵士原則。

        《吳子·治兵篇》說:兵"以治為勝"。所謂"治",就是"居則有禮,動則有威;進不可當,退不可追;前卻有節,左右應麾;雖絕成陳,雖散成行"。這樣的軍隊無往而不勝,"天下莫當,名曰'父子之兵'"。

        如果部隊無治,"法令不明,賞罰不信,金之不止,鼓之不進,雖有百萬,何益于用?""治"軍是經嚴格地教練取得的。因此,"用兵之法,教戒為先"。部隊缺乏教練,就會"常死其所不能,敗其所不便"。只有經過嚴格教練的軍隊才能無往不勝。

        教練的方法是:"一人學戰,教成十人。十人學戰,教成百人。百人學戰,教成千人。千人學戰,教成萬人。萬人學戰,教成三軍。"

        教練的內容之一是陣法,即適應方陣、圓陣的變化及掌握隊列的前、后、左、右、坐、起、進、止等動作。

        教練的內容之二,是熟悉金、鼓、旗、鈴等指揮號令。"鼙鼓金鐸,所以威耳;旌旗麾幟,所以威目;禁令刑罰,所以威心。"(《論將》)號令嚴明,"麾左而左,麾右而右,鼓之則進,金之則止",(《應變》)"一鼓整兵,二鼓習陣,三鼓趨食,四鼓嚴辨,五鼓就行。聞鼓聲合,然后舉旗。"(《治兵》)有不服從軍令者,誅。

        教練的內容之三,是軍中賞罰,"進有重賞,退有重刑,行之以信"。

        軍中實行"什伍相保"。如此,則"三軍威服,士卒用命,則戰無強敵,攻無堅陣矣"。(《應變》)

        在勵士方面,吳起雖為法家,但不主張用"嚴刑明罰"來鼓勵士氣,因為這是被動的辦法。吳起主張用主動的辦法,即"賞"來激勵士氣。

        他提出君主要在廟堂上"舉有功而進饗之,無功而勵之"。對于有功者,依據功勞大小,賞賜不同待遇。同時,在廟門外邊以功勞等次向立功者的父母妻子頒賞。這樣會造成一人立功,全家榮耀的社會風尚。對于陣亡將士的家屬,每年也要派使者進行慰問和賞賜。鼓勵沒有立功的士卒爭取立功。這樣,國家"發號布令而人樂聞,興師眾而人樂戰,交兵接刃而人樂死"。《吳子》的這些主張,與后來的《尉繚子》主張用"殺"來解決士氣問題有很大區別。反映它確是戰國初期的觀念,還承襲有《司馬法》的"仁本"思想。

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