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      當前位置:悠悠千古事 > 典籍名著 > 《孫臏兵法》軍事思想_孫臏的軍事思想

      《孫臏兵法》軍事思想_孫臏的軍事思想

      發布時間:2016-08-16  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

        孫臏的軍事思想主要集中于《孫臏兵法》。在戰爭觀方面,孫臏主張重視、慎重地對待戰爭。他強調戰爭是國家政治生活中解決問題的一種重要手段,只有以強有力的武力作為保障,才能夠使國家安定、富強。但是他反對窮兵黷武,指出作戰勝利能夠挽救瀕臨滅亡的國家但戰敗也同樣會失去土地、危害社稷,一味好戰必然會滅亡,自取其辱,所以必須慎重地對待戰爭,不可不用也不可濫用。孫臏主張積極地做好戰爭的準備工作來獲得勝利,這樣才能做到以戰爭抑制戰爭。他指出政治和經濟條件是決定戰爭勝負的基礎,“強兵”必先“富國”,只有具備強有力的政治和經濟作為后盾才能做到“事備而后動”。他又指出民心軍心是取得戰爭勝利的決定性因素,所以戰爭必須順應民心軍心,要做到“得眾”、“取眾”。

        戰爭認識論方面,孫臏提出將領要知“道”,“道”就是戰爭的規律。孫臏認為作戰時人眾、糧多、武器精良等因素都不足以保證取勝,只有掌握了戰爭的規律,了解敵我雙方情況,指揮得當,才能保證取勝。為此他專門闡述了積疏、盈虛、徑行、疾徐、眾寡、佚勞六對相互對立又相互轉化的矛盾,還對“奇正”進行了深層次的分析,認為將領只有真正認識到這些矛盾的作用,把握了這些矛盾的轉化規律,才能利用微妙的變化出奇制勝。

        戰略思想方面,孫臏強調“必攻不守”。在敵眾我寡、敵強我弱的情況下,積極主動地進攻敵人防守的薄弱環節,不僅能夠有效地殲滅敵人的有生力量,而且能夠轉換攻守形勢,掌握戰爭的主動權。戰術方面,孫臏提出“因勢”、“造勢”的思想。充分利用敵我雙方的條件,造成有利于我的態勢,以扭轉敵眾我寡的不利形勢。

        在具體的戰術方面,孫臏對陣法進行了專門論述,進而分析了攻擊各種戰陣的對策。他還專門論述了攻城的問題,把處在不同地形的城分為難攻的雄城和易攻的牝城兩類,論述了當時攻城的策略與技術。

        在軍隊建設、管理方面,首先,他對君主和將領的關系進行了分析。將領必須忠于君主,君主不應該干涉將領的具體軍務,將領要有獨立的軍事指揮權。其次,他對將領的素質進行了較多的論述。將領應當具備義、仁、德、信、智五個要素,他還分析了能夠致使將帥作戰失敗的品德缺陷。最后,他就管理隊伍的問題進行了論述,可以概括為任用賢能、嚴明紀律、獎懲公平、賞罰及時。

        但是孫臏的軍事思想也有其階級和時代的局限性。他對戰爭的性質分辨不清,把士兵純粹當作被驅使的工具,有些戰略戰術的表述過于簡單片面,有時還夾雜著迷信觀念,這也是應當指出的。

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