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      臘八節的民間習俗

      發布時間:2017-01-05  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

        臘八節,俗稱“臘八”,即農歷十二月初八,古人有祭祀祖先和神靈、祈求豐收吉祥的傳統,一些地區有喝臘八粥的習俗。相傳這一天還是佛祖釋迦牟尼成道之日,稱為“法寶節”,是佛教盛大的節日之一。

        臘八節的民間習俗:

        一、祭祀

        應劭《風俗通》云:“《禮傳》:臘者,獵也,言田獵取禽獸,以祭祀其祖也。或曰:臘者,接也,新故交接,故大祭以報功也。”其起源甚早,《禮記·郊特牲》記載:“伊耆氏始為蠟。蠟也者,索也,歲十二月,合聚萬物而索饗之也。”《史記·補三皇本紀》也說:“炎帝神農氏以其初為田事,故為蠟祭,以報天地”。夏代稱臘日祭為“嘉平”, 殷曰“清祀”,周曰“大蠟”,漢代改為“臘”。

        祭祀的對象凡八:先嗇神神農、司嗇神后稷、農神田官之神、郵表畦神始創田間廬舍、開路、劃疆界之人、貓虎神、坊神堤防、水庸神水溝、昆蟲神。先秦的臘祭日在冬至后第三個戌日,南北朝以后逐漸固定在臘月初八。到了唐宋,此節又被蒙上神佛色彩。

        相傳釋伽牟尼成佛之前,絕欲苦行,餓昏倒地。一牧羊女以雜糧摻以野果,用清泉煮粥將其救醒。釋伽牟尼在菩提樹下苦思,終在十二月八日得道成佛。從此佛門定此日為“佛成道日”,誦經紀念,相沿成節。到了明清,敬神供佛更是取代祭祀祖靈、歡慶豐收和驅疫禳災,而成為臘八節的主旋律。其節俗主要是熬煮、贈送、品嘗臘八粥,并舉行慶豐家實。同時許多人家自此拉開春節的序慕,忙于殺年豬、打豆腐、膠制風魚臘肉,采購年貨,“年”的氣氛逐漸濃厚。

        二、飲食文化

        1、臘八粥。臘八這一天有吃臘八粥的習俗,臘八粥也叫七寶五味粥。我國喝臘八粥的歷史,已有一千多年。最早開始于宋代。每逢臘八這一天,不論是朝廷、官府、寺院還是黎民百姓家都要做臘八粥。到了清朝,喝臘八粥的風俗更是盛行。在宮廷,皇帝、皇后、皇子等都要向文武大臣、侍從宮女賜臘八粥,并向各個寺院發放米、果等供僧侶食用。在民間,家家戶戶也要做臘八粥,祭祀祖先;同時,合家團聚在一起食用,饋贈親朋好友。

        不同地區臘八粥的用料雖有不同,但基本上都包括大米、小米、糯米、高粱米、紫米、薏米等谷類,黃豆、紅豆、綠豆、蕓豆、豇豆等豆類,紅棗、花生、蓮子、枸杞子、栗子、核桃仁、杏仁、桂圓、葡萄干、白果等干果。臘八粥不僅是時令美食,更是養生佳品,尤其適合在寒冷的天氣里保養脾胃。

        2、煮“五豆”。有些地方過臘八煮粥,不稱“臘八粥”,而叫做煮“五豆”,有的在臘八當天煮,有的在臘月初五就煮了,還要用面捏些“雀兒頭”,和米、豆(五種豆子)同煮。

        3、臘八醋。在中國北方地區有在臘八這天用醋泡大蒜的習俗,名“臘八醋”。臘八醋,要泡到大年初一,初一吃餃子,要吃素餃子,取一年素素凈凈之意,蘸臘八醋吃,別有一番滋味是。“臘八醋”不僅味道醇正,而且久放不壞。

        4、臘八蒜。在陰歷臘月初八的這天來泡制蒜,是北方,尤其是華北地區的一個習俗。其材料就是醋和大蒜瓣兒。

        泡臘八蒜是一道主要流行于北方,尤其是華北地區的傳統小吃,是臘八節節日食俗。在陰歷臘月初八的這天來泡制蒜。其實材料非常簡單,就是醋和大蒜瓣兒。做法也是極其簡單,將剝了皮的蒜瓣兒放到一個可以密封的罐子,瓶子之類的容器里面,然后倒入醋,封上口放到一個冷的地方。慢慢地,泡在醋中的蒜就會變綠,最后會變得通體碧綠的,如同翡翠碧玉。中國北方一到臘月初八,過年的氣氛一天賽過一天,華北大部分地區在臘月初八這天有用醋泡蒜的習俗,叫臘八蒜。

        5、吃冰。臘八前一天,人們一般用鋼盆舀水結冰,等到了臘八節就脫盆冰并把冰敲成碎塊。據說這天的冰很神奇,吃了它在以后一年不會肚子疼。

        6、臘八豆腐。臘八豆腐是安徽省黟縣地區民間傳統小吃之一,節日食俗。在春節前夕的臘月初八,家家戶戶都要曬制豆腐,民間將這種曬制的豆腐,便稱作“臘八豆腐”。

        在春節前夕的臘月初八,家家戶戶都要曬制豆腐,民間將這種曬制的豆腐,便稱作“臘八豆腐”。制作方法是先用上等小黃豆做成豆腐,并切成圓形或方形的塊狀,然后抹上鹽水,在上部中間挖一小洞,放入適量食鹽,置冬日溫和的太陽下慢慢烤曬,使鹽分逐漸吸入,水分也漸曬干,即成臘八豆腐。成品色澤黃潤如玉,入口松軟,味咸帶甜,又香又鮮。如在曬制時加入蝦米等配料,味則更好。“臘八豆腐”平時用草繩懸掛在通風處晾著,吃時摘取,一般可晾放三個月不變質、變味。它既可以單獨吃,也可與肉類同炒、同燉。招待貴賓時,黟縣人還將其雕刻成動物、花卉,澆上麻油,拌上蔥姜蒜等佐料,配成冷盤,成為酒宴佳肴。

        7、臘八面。臘八面,即臘八節的節令食品。傳統面食,流行于陜西關中地區,在陜西省渭北一帶的澄城地區,臘八節一般是不喝粥的,每年的農歷臘月初八早上,家家戶戶都要吃碗臘八面。

        以面和各種豆類(紅豆為住)為原料,面需做成韭葉面(韭菜葉的寬度相等的面條)備用;紅豆提前泡一晚,臘八這天用來熬湯,待水開時轉小火至紅豆熟透,中火煮面。同時熟油將蔥花爆香,面煮好后將蔥花油潑入鍋中。

           8、麥仁飯。西寧臘八節并不喝粥,而是吃麥仁飯。臘月初七晚上將新碾的麥仁,與牛羊肉同煮,加上青鹽、姜皮、花椒、草果、苗香等佐料,經一夜文火煮熬。青海傳說中說,農歷十二月八日是釋迦牟尼的成道之日,成道前有牧羊女獻乳糜,用香谷及果實造粥供佛,那粥就是麥仁粥,成了后來青海的“臘八粥”。后人根據這種做法,在青海人的飲食里造了這味飲食。也開始在餐館里流行。

        三、各地習俗

        1、陜西臘八節的習俗。臘八粥熬好之后,要先敬神祭祖。之后要贈送親友,一定要在中午之前送出去。最后才是全家人食用。吃剩的臘八粥,保存著吃了幾天還有剩下來的,卻是好兆頭,取其“年年有余”的意義。如果把粥送給窮苦的人吃,那更是為自己積德。 有些不產或者少產大米的地方,人們不吃臘八粥,而是吃臘八面。用各種果品、蔬菜做成臊子,把面條搟好。到臘月初八早上全家人一起吃。

        2、甘肅臘八節的習俗。傳統煮臘八粥用五谷、蔬菜,煮熟后除家人吃,還分送給鄰里,還要用來喂家畜。甘肅武威地區講究過“素臘八”,吃大米稠飯、扁豆飯或是稠飯,煮熟后配炸散子、麻花同吃,民俗叫它“扁豆粥泡散”。

        3、西寧臘八節的習俗。臘八節并不喝粥,而是吃麥仁飯。臘月初七晚上將新碾的麥仁,與牛羊肉同煮,加上青鹽、姜皮、花椒、草果、苗香等佐料,經一夜文火煮熬,麥仁飯異香撲鼻,十分可口。

        4、江浙臘八節的習俗。江蘇人吃臘八粥分甜咸兩種。臘八粥里要加入茨菰、荸薺、胡桃仁、松子仁、芡實、紅棗、栗子、木耳、青菜、金針菇等。如果煮的是咸粥的話,在里面加入青菜和油即可。

        5、浙江人煮臘八粥則一般用胡桃仁、松子仁、蓮子、紅棗、桂圓肉、荔枝肉等,香甜味美。據說,這種煮粥方法還是從南京流傳過來的。

        6、西北臘八節的習俗。臘八節在陜北高原,熬粥除了用多種米、豆之外,還得加入各種干果、豆腐和肉混合煮成。吃完以后,還要將粥抹在門上、灶臺上及門外樹上,以驅邪避災,迎接來年的農業大豐收。而且,臘八這天忌吃菜。如果這天吃菜的話,莊稼地里就會雜草多。臘八這天人們除了吃臘八粥,還得用粥供奉祖先和糧倉。

        7、寧夏臘八節的習俗。做臘八飯一般用各種豆類加大米、土豆煮粥,再加上用麥面或蕎麥面切成菱形柳葉片的“麥穗子”,或者是做成小圓蛋的“雀兒頭”,出鍋之前再入蔥花油。和陜北一樣,這天全家人只吃臘八飯,不吃菜。

        8、北京臘八節的習俗。北京的臘八粥可以說是最為講究的。摻在白米中的東西較多,如紅棗、蓮子、核桃、栗子、杏仁、松仁、桂圓、葡萄、白果、青絲、玫瑰、紅豆、花生……不下20種。人們在臘月初七晚上就開始洗米、泡果、撥皮、去核,半夜時分開始用微火燉,直到第二天清晨,臘八粥才算熬好了。

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