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      當前位置:悠悠千古事 > 傳統來源 > 中元節是怎么來的?中元節的來歷

      中元節是怎么來的?中元節的來歷

      發布時間:2017-01-05  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

        每年的農歷7月15日是中元節,那么中元節是什么節,中元節又是怎么來的?

        中元節又稱“七月節"或盂蘭盆會",為三大鬼節之一。中元節是道教的說法,"中元"之名起于北魏,有些地方俗稱"鬼節"、"施孤",又稱亡人節、七月半。根據古書記載:"道經以正月十五日為上元,七月十五日為中元,十月十五日為下元。

        那么,為什么會有這么令人害怕、擔憂的節日呢?中國自商代以降,就非常相信鬼神。雖然在他們的信仰中除了人鬼之外,還有天神和地只的存在,但是卻以“人鬼”作為中心信仰。

        中元節,即是和人鬼有密切關系的節慶。

        中元節的來歷

        “中元”之名起於北魏,中元節又稱“鬼節”或“孟蘭盆會”。根據五雜俎的記載:“道經以正月十五日為上元,七月十五日為中元,十月十五日為下元。”修行記說:“七月中元日,地官降下,定人間善惡,道士於是夜誦經,餓節囚徒亦得解脫。”佛教也在這一天,舉行超渡法會,稱為“屋蘭瑪納”(印度話ULLAMBANA)也就是“孟蘭會”。孟蘭盆的意義是倒懸,人生的痛苦有如倒掛在樹頭上的蝙蝠,懸掛著、苦不堪言。為了使眾生免於倒懸之苦,便需要誦經,布絕食物給孤魂野鬼。此舉正好和中國的鬼月祭拜不謀而合,因而中元節和孟蘭會便同時流傳下來。

        中元節的傳說

        有關中元節的傳說很多,最主要的有—閻羅王於每年農歷七月初一,打開鬼門關,放出一批無人奉祀的孤魂野鬼到陽間來享受人們的供祭。七月的最後一天,重關鬼門之前,這批孤魂野鬼又得返回陰間。所以七月又稱鬼月。目蓮救母的故事:佛陀弟子中,神通第一的目犍蓮尊者,惦念過世的母親,他用神通看到其母因在世時的貪念業報,死後墮落在的惡鬼道,過著吃不飽的生活。目犍蓮於是用他的神力化成食物,送給他的母親,但其母不改貪念,見到食物到來,深怕其他惡鬼搶食,貪念一起食物到她口中立即化成火炭,無法下咽。目犍蓮雖有神通,身為人子,卻救不了其母,十分痛苦,請教佛陀如何是好。佛陀說:“七月十五日是結夏安居修行的最後一日,法善充滿,在這一天,盆羅百味,供巷僧眾,功德無量,可以憑此慈悲心,救渡其亡母。”這便是臺灣普渡拜“好兄弟”的由來。

        每年農歷七月十五日為“盂蘭盆節”,也稱“中元節”有些地方又州俗稱“鬼節”,“施孤”。本是印度一種佛教儀式。佛教徒為了追薦祖先舉行“盂蘭盆會”;佛經中《盂蘭盆經》以修孝順勵佛弟子的旨意,合乎中國追先悼遠的俗信,于是益加普及。

        民間普遍流傳目蓮解救母厄的故事:

        “有目蓮僧者,法力宏大。其母墮落餓鬼道中,食物入口,即化為烈焰,饑苦太甚。目蓮無法解救母厄,于是求教于佛,為說盂蘭盆經,教于七月十五日作盂蘭盆以救其母。”

        中國從梁代開始照此仿行,相沿成中元節。不過后來除設齋供僧外,還增加了拜懺、放焰口等活動。

        這一天,事先在街口村前搭起法師座和施孤臺。法師座跟前供著超度"地獄"鬼魂的地藏王菩薩,下面供著一盤盤面制桃子、大米。施孤臺上立著三塊靈牌和招魂幡。過了中午,各家各戶紛紛把全豬、全羊、雞、鴨、鵝及各式發糕、果品、瓜果等擺到施孤臺上。主事者分別在每件祭品上插上一把藍、紅、綠等顏色的三角紙旗,上書"盂蘭盛會"、"甘露門開"等字樣。儀式是在一陣莊嚴肅穆的廟堂音樂中開始的。緊接著,法師敲響引鐘,帶領座下眾僧誦念各種咒語和真言。然后施食,將一盤盤面桃子和大米撒向四方,反復三次。這種儀式叫"放焰口"。

        到了晚上,家家戶戶還要在自己家門口焚香,把香插在地上,越多越好,象征著五谷豐登,這叫作"布田"。有些地方有放水燈的活動;所謂水燈,就是一塊小木板上扎一盞燈,大多數都用彩紙做成荷花狀,叫做"水旱燈"。按傳統的說法,水燈是為了給那些冤死鬼引路的。燈滅了,水燈也就完成了把冤魂引過奈何橋的任務。那天店鋪也都關門,把街道讓給鬼。街道的正中,每過百步就擺一張香案,香案上供著新鮮瓜果和一種"鬼包子"。桌后有道士唱人們都聽不懂的祭鬼歌。這種儀式叫"施歌兒"。

        上元節是人間的元宵節,人們張燈結彩慶元宵。"中元"由上元而來。人們認為,中元節是鬼節,也應該張燈,為鬼慶祝節日。不過,人鬼有別,所以,中元張燈和上元張燈不一樣。人為陽,鬼為陰;陸為陽,水為陰。水下神秘昏黑,使人想到傳說中的幽冥地獄,鬼魂就在那里沉淪。所以,上元張燈是在陸地,中元張燈是在水里。

        中元節的意義

        從有關中元節的傳說中,可深切體認到中元節的祭祀具有雙重的意義在,一是闡揚懷念祖先的孝道,一是發揚推已及人,樂善好施的義舉。這全是從慈悲的角度出發,很有人情味。所以,我們在慶贊中元的同時,應該跳脫鬼的角度,期勉互愛。

        覺得中元節恐怖,是因為你不夠了解中元節,了解中元節的來源與意義,中元節不再是鬼節。

      上一篇:沒有了 下一篇:中元節有什么習俗?中元節習俗
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