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      從歷史記憶看共工文化

      發布時間:2018-06-28  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

        由中國先秦史學會、中華炎黃文化研究會姓氏文化工作委員會、河南省炎黃文化研究會、黃河文化研究會主辦,河南省社會科學院歷史與考古研究所、中華龔氏文史研究會、輝縣市共城文化研究會承辦的“共工氏與中華龔姓文化研討會”在河南省輝縣市舉行。

        就共工身份各抒己見

        關于共工的身份,學術界的觀點可以分為兩類。第一類觀點認為共工是群體概念,為共工氏族群首領的稱號,有著重要的歷史地位,蒙文通、徐旭生、許順湛、王震中等持這種看法。第二類是個體化觀點,主要分為兩種,一種看法認為共工與鯀為同一人,張治中、童書業、楊寬、顧頡剛、丁山、孫作云等均持此說。另一種看法認為共工即蚩尤,郭元興、景以恩等持此說。

        此次會議上,大部分專家學者依然認同共工是一個群體概念。中國社會科學院歷史研究所研究員王震中認為,共工族自炎黃時代出現后,一直活躍于顓頊、高辛氏和堯舜禹時代。青海師范大學教授張廣志認為,共工不是某個人的專名,而是該氏族部落及其首領的共有名稱。煙臺大學教授江林昌認為,炎黃時代,共工部落就已存在,一直生存繁衍到夏代初期。鄭州大學歷史學院教授袁延勝認為,唐堯時期的共工是三皇時期共工氏的后代,因治水失敗而被流放,后世所批判的共工就是堯舜時期的這個共工,而不是太昊、神農之間的共工氏。

        重慶師范大學歷史與社會學院教授劉俊男持不同看法,他認為“共工”或指人,或指部族,或指官職,而且三者可能合一,并可世襲;在先秦文獻中,蚩尤與共工的事跡相似,蚩尤被滅后,其部族稱為共工,蚩尤既存炎帝之號,又為共工部族之祖,共工就是蚩尤。河南省社會科學院研究員任崇岳則認為,共工與蚩尤的戰爭是共工的重大貢獻之一,二者不可能為同一人。江林昌認為,上古時期的部族首領在當時社會環境下都可能有征戰、治水等事跡,不能因為蚩尤與共工的事跡基本相同就認定他們是同一人。

        共工積累治水經驗

        關于共工與洪水,歷史記載是雙重的,正面記載認為共工善于治水,負面記載認為共工曾造成洪水泛濫而帶來災難。從整體來看,負面評價長期占據主導地位。自從毛澤東在《漁家傲·反第一次大“圍剿”》中贊揚共工敢于反抗的精神后,學術界開始對共工進行新的審視。目前流行的觀點認為,雖然共工治水失敗,但該族群在長期治理洪水中積累了經驗,為大禹治水提供了借鑒。此次會議上,與會專家引經據典,充分論證了共工氏族群治理洪水的貢獻。

        四川大學歷史文化學院教授彭邦本認為,共工氏世代長于水利技術和農業,曾“霸九有”,領導各族群和邦國治理洪災,取得一定成效,但其治水方略過多依賴湮塞手段,最終未能成功,因而失去天下共主地位。河南大學歷史文化學院教授李玉潔認為,共工氏曾為帝堯的四岳和水官,在平整水土、治理江河、開發農業方面作出了很大貢獻。首都師范大學歷史學院教授袁廣闊認為,輝縣地區是共工氏的主要活動區域和治水區域,雖然共工治水未能成功,但為大禹治水積累了經驗教訓。

        共工氏為龔姓主源

        關于共、龔等姓氏的來源,學術界大多認為,共工氏后裔形成共、龔、洪等姓氏,共工氏是這些姓氏的始祖。共工氏為龔姓主源這一認識,得到大部分與會專家學者和龔姓宗親的認同,但也存在不同看法。

        中國青年政治學院教授王大良認為,龔姓主要出自共姓,尊奉共工為始祖,是個多元一體的姓氏。河南省社會科學院中原文化研究所研究員李喬認為,共工氏為龔氏族人的鼻祖。河南省社會科學院歷史與考古研究所研究員張新斌認為,龔姓源頭復雜,主支來源于上古時期,始祖為共工氏。江林昌認為,龔姓的起源可以追溯到龍山時代晚期或夏代早期,生活在輝縣的共工族后裔,因崇拜龍圖騰而發展出龔姓,世代相守,商代卜辭和青銅器中已有“龔”地、“龔”族。

        一些學者則從文字角度論證“共”、“龔”等字的產生及演變,對“龔”、“共”姓氏起源得出了不同結論。北京師范大學特聘教授、中國社會科學院考古研究所研究員曹定云認為,中華“龔氏(姓)”中,至少包括殷代“龔國”后人和西周“共(龔)國”后人,他們原本源于不同的“姓”。南開大學歷史學院教授朱彥民認為,商周之際,既有“共”也有“龔”,兩者分化,各自獨立,成為同源異流的兩個族姓,發展開來。

        族徽佐證龔姓淵源

        與會代表對甲骨文和金文中的“龔”字進行梳理考證時,還發現了商周時期龔氏家族的族徽,即出土于輝縣的子龍鼎上的“子龍”。這從另一方面證實,早在商周時期,龔氏家族就已生活于輝縣地區,他們很可能是從更早的共工氏族群延續發展而來。

        江林昌認為,子龍鼎、輝縣及周邊出土的眾多鑄有“子龍”、“子龔”、“龔子”等銘文的青銅器,以及輝縣孟莊龍山文化遺存,證實輝縣不僅是龍山晚期共工氏族生活與治水的中心區,而且以龍為圖騰崇拜的龔姓氏族也發源、形成于此。曹定云認為,殷代就有“龔國”,其地望大致在今河南輝縣,其族徽就是子龍鼎上的“子龍”,這個龔國西周初年仍存在,其后裔形成后世龔姓的一支。

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