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      當前位置:悠悠千古事 > 歷史疑云 > 西夏王陵為什么是八卦北斗布局?

      西夏王陵為什么是八卦北斗布局?

      發布時間:2016-11-22  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

        西夏王陵自被發現以來就一直很神秘,作為王室的陵墓,不管是取址、陪葬還是布局都大有講究。下面,我們就一起來看看,西夏王陵為什么是八卦北斗布局?

        西夏,在中國歷史上曾占有一席重要的位置。它是一個以黨項民族為主體,包括漢、吐蕃、回鶻等多民族的國家政權。隋代之前,善于游牧的黨項人開始崛起。不久,他們征戰南北,占據了今四川、甘肅、青海及內蒙的部分地區。到了宋代,黨項人與宋、遼展開了或叛或附的反復較量。

        1032年,黨項首領李元昊登基稱帝。從此,西夏開始了它近200年燦爛的歷史。受漢文化的影響,西夏有了自己的方塊文字和歷法,有一套完整的政治體系和宗教體系。可以說,這個善于征戰的民族在融合了多民族文化的同時也造就了自己輝煌的文明。

        從夏景宗李元昊開始,西夏共出現了十位皇帝。到了十三世紀初,在蒙古軍隊的強勁攻勢下,西夏已是英雄末路。到了夏末帝時代,這個民族高貴的頭顱在蒙古人鋒利的馬刀下被齊刷刷地斬下,永遠沉沒于滔滔的歷史長河

        西夏陵的神秘,更多地表現在至今沒有被人破謎的建筑形制和文化內涵上。由于文獻缺載,陵區每座王陵的主人是誰,至今難以確定。西夏陵區的每一座帝陵,都是由宮城和其它附屬建筑組成的獨立完整的建筑群體,它們均坐北朝南,基本結構大體相同。

        西夏陵園內最為高大醒目的建筑,是一座殘高23米的夯土堆,狀如窩頭。仔細觀察,其為八角,上有層層殘瓦堆砌,多為五層。于是有學者認定,其在未破壞前是一座八角五層的實心密檐塔,陵塔之說便屢見報端。但塔式建筑緣何立于陵園之內,其功能作用如何?則少有人說得清楚。至于這座陵塔又為什么要建在陵園的西北隅,學術界的說法各執一詞。

        令人大惑不解的還有西夏王陵出土的文物。西夏陵殘碑是西夏陵慘遭蒙古軍隊破壞的見證,更是研究西夏歷史不可多得的珍貴文物。從目前收集的三千三百多塊西夏殘碑來看,一處出土的殘碑多則千百塊,少則僅幾塊,除了仁孝壽陵殘碑可綴合出一塊能讀通的16字西夏篆文碑額外,其它大量出土的殘碑竟不能拼集出一塊完整的碑文來。

        從七處出土的殘碑推斷,大量的殘碑至今沒有被發現。于是人們猜想陵區內有碑冢存在。蒙古軍隊來不及砸碎的碑石,可能集中埋放在一個或幾個大坑里。至于陵區出土的八九座石像座,獠牙外露,怒目圓睜,作蹲舉狀,有人說是碑座,有人猜想為柱礎,至今沒有定論,依然蒙著一層神秘的面紗。

        自從上世紀70年代初西夏王陵被發現以來,它的面孔一直是若隱若現,迷霧重重。幾年前,西夏王陵精確的坐標繪圖在專家們的手中完成。不久,有人驚訝地發現,九座帝王墓的組成正是一個北斗星的圖案,而它的陪葬墓也都是按各種星象的布局來設計的!這使西夏王陵更增添了神秘的色彩。

        西夏王陵的布局有些令人費解。西夏王陵不僅吸收秦漢唐宋皇陵之所長,還把佛教建筑元素納入其中。把漢文化、佛文化和黨項族文化融合起來,形成獨具魅力又有突破的建筑風格。在中國陵墓文化中,一般王陵都是按照時間的順序或者帝王輩分由南向北排列,西夏王陵也不例外。

        但是西夏王陵的布局特別怪異,每座王陵的具體位置的安排似乎體現著一種事先設計好的規劃。從高空俯視九座王陵的分布,好像與北斗七星圖相似。但是單獨看八座王陵的分布,又與八卦圖形相近似。

        有學者猜測,可能是根據風水文化來定位安排的,于是疑問由此而發,西夏王國最早到最晚共經歷九代,時間相差近200年,事先誰又能預測到西夏王國會傳9代王位?再說黨項族是古羌族的一分支,在其文化淵源里,并沒有一些明顯的實際例子證明,西夏王國有崇拜八卦和相信風水的的特征。不管是考古專家還是歷史學者,都難以解釋王陵的格局呈八卦圖形的緣由。

        西夏是一個神秘的民族,也許是西夏特殊的文化環境決定了西夏王陵是八卦北斗布局,但是這樣布局的含義是什么呢?由于史料較少,我們也很難猜測這布局背后的真正含義。

      標簽: 西夏王陵(1)
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