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      當前位置:悠悠千古事 > 歷史人物 > 炎帝簡介 炎帝的貢獻

      炎帝簡介 炎帝的貢獻

      發布時間:2017-04-10  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

        炎帝,是中國上古時期姜姓部落的首領尊稱,號神農氏,又號魁隗氏、連山氏、列山氏,別號朱襄(尚有爭議,也有說朱襄氏部落曾有三代首領尊號炎帝)。

        傳說姜姓部落的首領由于懂得用火而得到王位,所以稱為炎帝。從神農起姜姓部落共有九代炎帝,神農生帝魁,魁生帝承,承生帝明,明生帝直,直生帝氂,氂生帝哀,哀生帝克,克生帝榆罔,傳位五百三十年。

        炎帝所處時代為新石器時代,炎帝故里目前有六地之爭,分別是:陜西寶雞、湖南會同縣連山、湖南株洲炎陵縣、湖北的隨州、山西高平、河南柘城。炎帝部落的活動范圍在黃河中下游,在姜水(一說是今寶雞市渭濱區的清姜河,一說是今寶雞市岐山縣的岐水。)一帶時部落開始興盛,最初定都在陳地,后來又將都城遷移到曲阜。

        相傳炎帝牛首人身,他親嘗百草,發展用草藥治病;他發明刀耕火種創造了兩種翻土農具,教民墾荒種植糧食作物;他還領導部落人民制造出了飲食用的陶器和炊具。


        參與涿鹿之戰

        據說蚩尤族善于制作兵器,其銅制兵器精良堅利,且部眾勇猛剽悍,生性善戰,擅長角牴,進入華北地區后,首先與炎帝部族發生了正面沖突。蚩尤族聯合巨人夸父部族和三苗一部,用武力擊敗了炎帝族,并進而占據了炎帝族居住的“九隅”,即“九州”。炎帝族為了維持生存,遂向同集團的黃帝族求援。

        黃帝族為了維護炎黃集團的整體利益,就答應炎帝族的請求,將勢力推向東方。這樣,便同正乘勢向西北推進的蚩尤族在涿鹿地區相遭遇了。當時蚩尤族集結了所屬的81個支族(一說72族),在力量上占據某種優勢,所以,雙方接觸后,蚩尤族便倚仗人多勢眾、武器優良等條件,主動向黃帝族發起攻擊。黃帝族則率領以熊、羆、狼、豹、雕、龍、鸮等為圖騰的氏族,迎戰蚩尤族,并讓“應龍高水”,即利用位處上流(《山海經》中曰靈山)的條件,在河流上筑土壩蓄水(以蓄水沖了蚩尤寨),以阻擋蚩尤族的進攻。

        炎帝有什么貢獻呢?

        一、制耒耜,種五谷,奠定了農工基礎。耒耜的使用和種五谷,解決了民以食為天的大事,促進了農業生產的發展,為人類由原始游牧生活向農耕文明轉化創造了條件。

        二、嘗百草,開醫藥先河。據《帝王世紀》載,神農“嘗味草木,宣藥療疾,救夭傷人命”。為嘗百草,一日之間而遇七十毒。炎帝炎帝在與大自然,與疾病作斗爭中,為后世醫藥事業的發展奠定了基礎。

        三、立市廛,首辟市場。據《周易•系辭下》載“神農”日中為市,致天下之民,聚天下之貨,交易而退,各得其所"。神農發明的以日中為市,以物易物的市場是我國貨幣,商業發展的起源和基石。

        四、治麻為布,民著衣裳。原始人本無衣裳,僅以樹葉,獸皮遮身,神農教民麻桑為布帛后,人們才有了衣裳,這是人類由朦昧社會向文明社會邁出的重大一步。

        五、作五弦琴,以樂百姓。據《世本•下篇》載,神農發明了樂器,他削桐為琴,結絲為弦,這種琴后來叫神農琴。神農琴“長三尺六寸六分,上有五弦:曰、宮、商、角、徵、羽”。這種琴發出的聲音,能道天地之德,能表神農之和,能使人們娛樂。

        六、削木為弓,以威天下。神農始創了弓箭,有效地防止了野獸的襲擊,有力地打擊了外來部落的侵犯,保衛了人們的生命安全和勞動成果。

        七、制作陶器,改善生活。在陶器發明前,人們加工處理食物,只能用火燒烤,有了陶器,人們對食物可以進行蒸煮加工,還可以貯存物品,釀酒,消毒。陶器的使用,改善了人類的生活條件,對人類的飲食衛生和醫藥發展產生了深遠的影響。

        為了促使人們有規律地生活,按季節栽培農作物,炎帝神農還立歷日,立星辰,分晝夜,定日月,月為三十日,十一月為冬至。

        炎帝管理部落,治理天下很有方法。他不望其報,不貪天下之財,而天下共富之。智貴于人,天下共尊之。他以德以義,不賞而民勤,不罰而邪正,不忿爭而財足,無制令而民從,威厲而不殺,法省而不煩,人民無不敬戴。www.bjzhmgsls.com

        炎帝還是我國教育的始祖。他教民使用工具,教民播種五谷,教民醫藥,教民制陶、繪畫,教民弓箭、獵獸、健身,教民制琴、教民音樂、舞蹈,還教民智德。可見,炎帝時期,德、智、體、美得到了全面重視和發展。

        炎帝神農氏對人類的發展作出了巨大的貢獻。炎帝精神,首要的是創業精神,奉獻精神,敢為人先的創造精神,百折不撓,自強不息的進取精神。炎帝精神使中華后裔在與自然和社會的斗爭中,擺脫愚昧和野蠻,追求先進與文明。這種精神使華夏民族獲得了高度的團結和統一。炎帝神農氏、神農文化、農業文明,文明依寄著人性化神明而發展,又促使人性化神明升華為一個民族的文明支柱,不僅構成了世界文明史中絢爛多彩的重要組成,而且成為人類文明寶庫中不可多得的文化瑰寶。

        以上就是關于“炎帝簡介炎帝的貢獻”的故事,喜歡的朋友請繼續關注悠悠千古事,歡迎留言評論。

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