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      立法者屈原

      發布時間:2018-11-05  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

      “大節仰忠貞,氣吐虹霓,

      天問九章歌浩蕩;

      修能明治亂,志存社稷,

      澤遺萬世頌離騷。”

      又到端午佳節,

      龍舟競發,粽葉飄香,

      人們莫不感懷憑吊偉大詩人屈原。

      而鮮為人知的是,

      屈原也可以說是一位“法律人”。

      屈原既是一位明于治亂、造為憲令的立法者,也是一位哀民生之多艱、探求法律民情基礎的政治家,更是一位遵循繩墨法度、追求國富法立的法律思想家。屈原的詩歌也可以說是一支法律求索之歌,披露了屈子尋求善治美政的情懷。

      詩歌與法律的融合是一個古老的話題。在中國,法律的“律”字起源于音律。古代詩、歌、舞本是三位一體的。在西方,法律的詞源“nomos”本身兼有法律、音樂、詩歌等多重意思,法亦與歌同源。

      在意大利哲學家、法學家維柯看來,人類早期都是“詩性智慧”。詩人實際上就是各民族的早期立法者,法律都是用詩來制定的,最早的典章制度也都是保存在詩里。而“詩人”一詞在古希臘文里的意義就是“制作者”或“創造者”,詩人與立法者具有同一詞根。

      偉大的哲學家柏拉圖在《國家篇》和《法律篇》中把“法律和組織的美”視為一種居于較高層次的“美”。建立一個城邦的法律比創作一部悲劇還要美得多,歷史上偉大的立法者(如斯巴達的萊庫古和雅典的梭倫)才是偉大的詩人,他們制定的法律才是偉大的詩。

      這一評價用到屈原身上同樣合適。

      屈原就是一位立法者,

      而且更自覺地用自己的詩歌記錄了自己的法治經歷。

      “國富強而法立兮”的法治情懷

      屈原以詩歌名世,而屈原的詩歌其實反映了其曲折的法治探索和忠貞的法治理念。

      屈原在《離騷》的開頭介紹了自己姓名由來,“皇覽揆余初度兮,肇錫余以嘉名:名余曰正則兮,字余曰靈均”。《史記·屈原賈生列傳》說屈原名平,字原。而在《離騷》中,他則自稱名正則,字靈均,這是前者的轉寫化名。

      “正則”與“靈均”是平和原二字的引申義,

      正義、規則、公平等都是法治最重要的維度。

      法律向來被視為公平正義的化身,屈原取名本就蘊含了諸多法律政治的寓意。

      司馬遷在《史記·屈原賈生列傳》里說:

      “屈平疾王聽之不聰也,

      讒諂之蔽明也,

      邪曲之害公也,

      方正之不容也,

      故憂愁幽思而作《離騷》。”

      這記載了《離騷》的創作緣由,指明其政治抒情詩的精神品質,于中可見,其起因本就與“邪曲害公、方正不容”等法治因素相關。

      所謂法律按照羅馬法學家所言,是“正義不正義的學問”。他在《離騷》《九章》《惜誦》等詩歌作品中抨擊當時的楚國貴族不遵守法度等行為,表述了鮮明的守“規矩”、循“繩墨”、明“法度”、通治亂的法治理念。

      例如,屈原在《離騷》中吟唱道:

      “固時俗之工巧兮,偭規矩而改錯;

      背繩墨以追曲兮,競周容以為度。”

      這是說,時俗本就喜歡投機取巧,規矩既違背,措施又變更。離開準繩墨斗追求邪曲,以茍合取容作為處世標準,這種不守法度的行為是國亂世衰的原因。

      作為對策,必須“舉賢而授能兮,循繩墨而不頗;皇天無私阿兮,攬民德焉錯輔”,必須遵循法度,一點也不偏頗,才能贏得民眾的認同,皇天公正,水可載舟,人民擁戴誰就能得到天命。是否遵循法度,這是治亂的關鍵所在。

      對于背離法度的危險境地,屈原在《惜往日》中形象地比喻到,

      “乘騏驥而馳騁兮,無轡銜而自載。

      乘泛泭以下流兮,無舟楫而自備。

      背法度而心治兮,辟與此其無異”。

      背棄法度而憑私心治事,就像乘快馬奔跑而沒有轡銜,汜泭下流而沒有舟楫,必然會自取滅亡,禍國殃民。

      屈原還以無懼法律審判來表達自己忠貞的志向。《惜誦》有言:

      “所非忠而言之兮,指蒼天以為正。

      令五帝使折中兮,戒六神與向服。

      俾山川以備御兮,命咎繇使聽直”。

      其中,咎繇即皋陶,是中國上古傳說中的第一位司法官。

      在這里屈原真誠地宣誓,如果我所說的不是出于忠誠,可以指著蒼天來為我作證,令五方之帝辨析刑書條文,告六宗之神對證控罪之詞,使山川之神備用陪審,命皋陶作法官裁決曲直。其中對皋陶、獄訟的熟練引用,可見屈原對訴訟過程頗為熟悉。而且他以法律審判作為其宣誓的形式,也可見其對法律的信仰與敬畏,彰顯其信仰之忠誠,秉性之無私。

      “明于治亂、造為憲令”的立法者生涯

      屈原是楚國杰出的政治家,洞悉各國治世之道。司馬遷《史記》中,說他是

      “博聞強識”“嫻于辭令”。

      20多歲就做了楚國高官左徒,這是僅次于令尹(宰相)的官位。據《史記》記載,

      屈原“為楚懷王左徒。博聞強志,明于治亂,嫻于辭令。

      入則與王圖議國事,以出號令;

      出則接遇賓客,應對諸侯。王甚任之”。

      他受楚懷王委托,“造為憲令”,所謂憲令,就是法令。造憲令,即指屈原出臺法令、起草規章、主持變法改革。可見他是一位卓越的立法者。

      楚國在楚悼王時已有吳起變法的先例,均爵平祿,打破楚國爵祿的世襲制,廢除無用、無能的官職。屈原用“法夫前修”形容他參與的這次楚國變法,在其詩歌中表示“效法先賢”。屈原很可能繼承了吳起這些變法措施,繼續通過良法善治使楚國富國強大。

      由于歷史資料的匱乏,屈原改革的具體內容已不可考。但是根據其詩歌追憶及其美政的核心思想,大致可以推斷,其措施當有廢除舊貴族特權、選賢任能、修明政治、德法兼治、富國強民、聯齊抗秦、統一天下等。

      后來,屈原即使在放逐流浪途中,也不斷追溯懷想其變法改革,足見這在其一生經歷中的分量。屈原在《九章·惜往日》中如此激情滿懷追憶:

      “中惜往日之曾信兮,受命詔以昭時。

      奉先功以照下兮,明法度之嫌疑。

      國富強而法立兮,屬貞臣而日娭。

      秘密事之載心兮,雖過失猶弗治。”

      他念茲在茲的便是變法修制,追求美政善治,只要法度嚴密,無疑可存,法度完備,國家便會富強。

      “哀民生之多艱”,探求法律的民情基礎

      2014年,習近平總書記在文藝工作座談會上的講話即引屈原的“長太息以掩涕兮,哀民生之多艱”等詩歌,認為這是“深刻反映人民心聲的作品和佳句”。法諺有云,人民的幸福乃最高的法律。屈原是我國古代民本民生思想的重要代表之一,其提倡的“哀民生之多艱”當是法律最重要的價值基礎。

      “民生”一詞最早出現在《左傳·宣公十二年》,所謂“民生在勤,勤則不匱”。屈原身為宗室重臣,卻對百姓充滿深深的同情。他在變法中反對世卿世祿、限制貴族特權,不惜觸犯貴族壟斷集團的利益。他其實早就預測了由此帶來的風險,“豈余身之憚殃兮,恐皇輿之敗績”,但出于對國家的忠誠和對民生的系念,他仍然無怨無悔。立法為民,執法為公。身居廟堂而關心民瘼,放逐江湖之遠,更為民生多艱而痛哭流涕。

      屈原被放逐也與其變法有關。不少貴族為保持個人祿位而反對變法。與屈原同列的上官大夫心懷嫉妒。屈原起草憲令未定,上官大夫欲奪其稿,屈原不予,他就向懷王進讒言說:“王使屈平為令,眾莫不知。每一令出,平伐其功,曰以為非我莫能為也。”

      懷王庸懦昏聵,因而怒疏屈原。屈原因變法而興,因變法而黜,其命運確可一嘆。當然從上官大夫“每一令出,平伐其功”這樣的讒言中,也可以看出屈原立法頻繁,且都很成功,否則也不至于讓他們因嫉妒而進讒言。但不管居廟堂之高,還是處江湖之遠,從變法到放逐,屈原不變的是以民為本,為民請命。

       

      立法者屈原

       

      屈原。資料圖

      他在《漁父》中說:

      “奉世皆濁我獨清,

      眾人皆醉我獨醒。”

      他追求正直光明,絕不愿隨波逐流,不愿“蒙世俗之塵埃”,毅然赴死,以死明志,彰顯體現生命的尊嚴,這也是法律的尊嚴。

      唐代詩人殷堯藩《端午》有言:

      “不效艾符趨習俗,

      但祈蒲酒話升平。”

      我們今天紀念屈原,不僅是繼承傳統習俗和傳統文化,更要感悟屈子力行變法修制、探求治亂升平的法治之志。

      (作者系湖南大學法學院副教授)

      文/蔣海松

      編輯/代秀輝 王碩

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